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authorBert Lange <b.lange@hzdr.de>2015-04-15 13:36:55 +0200
committerBert Lange <b.lange@hzdr.de>2015-04-15 13:36:55 +0200
commita1c964908b51599bf624bd2d253419c7e629f195 (patch)
tree06125d59e83b7dde82d1bb57bc0e09ca83451b98 /zpu/roadshow/roadshow/dhrystone
parentbbfe29a15f11548eb7c9fa71dcb4d2d18c164a53 (diff)
parent8679e4f91dcae05aef40f96629f33f0f4161f14a (diff)
downloadzpu-a1c964908b51599bf624bd2d253419c7e629f195.zip
zpu-a1c964908b51599bf624bd2d253419c7e629f195.tar.gz
Merge branch 'master' of https://github.com/zylin/zpu
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+
+
+ Dhrystone Benchmark: Rationale for Version 2 and Measurement Rules
+
+ [published in SIGPLAN Notices 23,8 (Aug. 1988), 49-62]
+
+
+ Reinhold P. Weicker
+ Siemens AG, E STE 35
+ [now: Siemens AG, AUT E 51]
+ Postfach 3220
+ D-8520 Erlangen
+ Germany (West)
+
+
+
+
+1. Why a Version 2 of Dhrystone?
+
+The Dhrystone benchmark program [1] has become a popular benchmark for
+CPU/compiler performance measurement, in particular in the area of
+minicomputers, workstations, PC's and microprocesors. It apparently satisfies
+a need for an easy-to-use integer benchmark; it gives a first performance
+indication which is more meaningful than MIPS numbers which, in their literal
+meaning (million instructions per second), cannot be used across different
+instruction sets (e.g. RISC vs. CISC). With the increasing use of the
+benchmark, it seems necessary to reconsider the benchmark and to check whether
+it can still fulfill this function. Version 2 of Dhrystone is the result of
+such a re-evaluation, it has been made for two reasons:
+
+o Dhrystone has been published in Ada [1], and Versions in Ada, Pascal and C
+ have been distributed by Reinhold Weicker via floppy disk. However, the
+ version that was used most often for benchmarking has been the version made
+ by Rick Richardson by another translation from the Ada version into the C
+ programming language, this has been the version distributed via the UNIX
+ network Usenet [2].
+
+ There is an obvious need for a common C version of Dhrystone, since C is at
+ present the most popular system programming language for the class of
+ systems (microcomputers, minicomputers, workstations) where Dhrystone is
+ used most. There should be, as far as possible, only one C version of
+ Dhrystone such that results can be compared without restrictions. In the
+ past, the C versions distributed by Rick Richardson (Version 1.1) and by
+ Reinhold Weicker had small (though not significant) differences.
+
+ Together with the new C version, the Ada and Pascal versions have been
+ updated as well.
+
+o As far as it is possible without changes to the Dhrystone statistics,
+ optimizing compilers should be prevented from removing significant
+ statements. It has turned out in the past that optimizing compilers
+ suppressed code generation for too many statements (by "dead code removal"
+ or "dead variable elimination"). This has lead to the danger that
+ benchmarking results obtained by a naive application of Dhrystone - without
+ inspection of the code that was generated - could become meaningless.
+
+The overall policiy for version 2 has been that the distribution of
+statements, operand types and operand locality described in [1] should remain
+unchanged as much as possible. (Very few changes were necessary; their impact
+should be negligible.) Also, the order of statements should remain unchanged.
+Although I am aware of some critical remarks on the benchmark - I agree with
+several of them - and know some suggestions for improvement, I didn't want to
+change the benchmark into something different from what has become known as
+"Dhrystone"; the confusion generated by such a change would probably outweight
+the benefits. If I were to write a new benchmark program, I wouldn't give it
+the name "Dhrystone" since this denotes the program published in [1].
+However, I do recognize the need for a larger number of representative
+programs that can be used as benchmarks; users should always be encouraged to
+use more than just one benchmark.
+
+The new versions (version 2.1 for C, Pascal and Ada) will be distributed as
+widely as possible. (Version 2.1 differs from version 2.0 distributed via the
+UNIX Network Usenet in March 1988 only in a few corrections for minor
+deficiencies found by users of version 2.0.) Readers who want to use the
+benchmark for their own measurements can obtain a copy in machine-readable
+form on floppy disk (MS-DOS or XENIX format) from the author.
+
+
+2. Overall Characteristics of Version 2
+
+In general, version 2 follows - in the parts that are significant for
+performance measurement, i.e. within the measurement loop - the published
+(Ada) version and the C versions previously distributed. Where the versions
+distributed by Rick Richardson [2] and Reinhold Weicker have been different,
+it follows the version distributed by Reinhold Weicker. (However, the
+differences have been so small that their impact on execution time in all
+likelihood has been negligible.) The initialization and UNIX instrumentation
+part - which had been omitted in [1] - follows mostly the ideas of Rick
+Richardson [2]. However, any changes in the initialization part and in the
+printing of the result have no impact on performance measurement since they
+are outside the measaurement loop. As a concession to older compilers, names
+have been made unique within the first 8 characters for the C version.
+
+The original publication of Dhrystone did not contain any statements for time
+measurement since they are necessarily system-dependent. However, it turned
+out that it is not enough just to inclose the main procedure of Dhrystone in a
+loop and to measure the execution time. If the variables that are computed
+are not used somehow, there is the danger that the compiler considers them as
+"dead variables" and suppresses code generation for a part of the statements.
+Therefore in version 2 all variables of "main" are printed at the end of the
+program. This also permits some plausibility control for correct execution of
+the benchmark.
+
+At several places in the benchmark, code has been added, but only in branches
+that are not executed. The intention is that optimizing compilers should be
+prevented from moving code out of the measurement loop, or from removing code
+altogether. Statements that are executed have been changed in very few places
+only. In these cases, only the role of some operands has been changed, and it
+was made sure that the numbers defining the "Dhrystone distribution"
+(distribution of statements, operand types and locality) still hold as much as
+possible. Except for sophisticated optimizing compilers, execution times for
+version 2.1 should be the same as for previous versions.
+
+Because of the self-imposed limitation that the order and distribution of the
+executed statements should not be changed, there are still cases where
+optimizing compilers may not generate code for some statements. To a certain
+degree, this is unavoidable for small synthetic benchmarks. Users of the
+benchmark are advised to check code listings whether code is generated for all
+statements of Dhrystone.
+
+Contrary to the suggestion in the published paper and its realization in the
+versions previously distributed, no attempt has been made to subtract the time
+for the measurement loop overhead. (This calculation has proven difficult to
+implement in a correct way, and its omission makes the program simpler.)
+However, since the loop check is now part of the benchmark, this does have an
+impact - though a very minor one - on the distribution statistics which have
+been updated for this version.
+
+
+3. Discussion of Individual Changes
+
+In this section, all changes are described that affect the measurement loop
+and that are not just renamings of variables. All remarks refer to the C
+version; the other language versions have been updated similarly.
+
+In addition to adding the measurement loop and the printout statements,
+changes have been made at the following places:
+
+o In procedure "main", three statements have been added in the non-executed
+ "then" part of the statement
+
+ if (Enum_Loc == Func_1 (Ch_Index, 'C'))
+
+ they are
+
+ strcpy (Str_2_Loc, "DHRYSTONE PROGRAM, 3'RD STRING");
+ Int_2_Loc = Run_Index;
+ Int_Glob = Run_Index;
+
+ The string assignment prevents movement of the preceding assignment to
+ Str_2_Loc (5'th statement of "main") out of the measurement loop (This
+ probably will not happen for the C version, but it did happen with another
+ language and compiler.) The assignment to Int_2_Loc prevents value
+ propagation for Int_2_Loc, and the assignment to Int_Glob makes the value of
+ Int_Glob possibly dependent from the value of Run_Index.
+
+o In the three arithmetic computations at the end of the measurement loop in
+ "main ", the role of some variables has been exchanged, to prevent the
+ division from just cancelling out the multiplication as it was in [1]. A
+ very smart compiler might have recognized this and suppressed code
+ generation for the division.
+
+o For Proc_2, no code has been changed, but the values of the actual parameter
+ have changed due to changes in "main".
+
+o In Proc_4, the second assignment has been changed from
+
+ Bool_Loc = Bool_Loc | Bool_Glob;
+
+ to
+
+ Bool_Glob = Bool_Loc | Bool_Glob;
+
+ It now assigns a value to a global variable instead of a local variable
+ (Bool_Loc); Bool_Loc would be a "dead variable" which is not used
+ afterwards.
+
+o In Func_1, the statement
+
+ Ch_1_Glob = Ch_1_Loc;
+
+ was added in the non-executed "else" part of the "if" statement, to prevent
+ the suppression of code generation for the assignment to Ch_1_Loc.
+
+o In Func_2, the second character comparison statement has been changed to
+
+ if (Ch_Loc == 'R')
+
+ ('R' instead of 'X') because a comparison with 'X' is implied in the
+ preceding "if" statement.
+
+ Also in Func_2, the statement
+
+ Int_Glob = Int_Loc;
+
+ has been added in the non-executed part of the last "if" statement, in order
+ to prevent Int_Loc from becoming a dead variable.
+
+o In Func_3, a non-executed "else" part has been added to the "if" statement.
+ While the program would not be incorrect without this "else" part, it is
+ considered bad programming practice if a function can be left without a
+ return value.
+
+ To compensate for this change, the (non-executed) "else" part in the "if"
+ statement of Proc_3 was removed.
+
+The distribution statistics have been changed only by the addition of the
+measurement loop iteration (1 additional statement, 4 additional local integer
+operands) and by the change in Proc_4 (one operand changed from local to
+global). The distribution statistics in the comment headers have been updated
+accordingly.
+
+
+4. String Operations
+
+The string operations (string assignment and string comparison) have not been
+changed, to keep the program consistent with the original version.
+
+There has been some concern that the string operations are over-represented in
+the program, and that execution time is dominated by these operations. This
+was true in particular when optimizing compilers removed too much code in the
+main part of the program, this should have been mitigated in version 2.
+
+It should be noted that this is a language-dependent issue: Dhrystone was
+first published in Ada, and with Ada or Pascal semantics, the time spent in
+the string operations is, at least in all implementations known to me,
+considerably smaller. In Ada and Pascal, assignment and comparison of strings
+are operators defined in the language, and the upper bounds of the strings
+occuring in Dhrystone are part of the type information known at compilation
+time. The compilers can therefore generate efficient inline code. In C,
+string assignemt and comparisons are not part of the language, so the string
+operations must be expressed in terms of the C library functions "strcpy" and
+"strcmp". (ANSI C allows an implementation to use inline code for these
+functions.) In addition to the overhead caused by additional function calls,
+these functions are defined for null-terminated strings where the length of
+the strings is not known at compilation time; the function has to check every
+byte for the termination condition (the null byte).
+
+Obviously, a C library which includes efficiently coded "strcpy" and "strcmp"
+functions helps to obtain good Dhrystone results. However, I don't think that
+this is unfair since string functions do occur quite frequently in real
+programs (editors, command interpreters, etc.). If the strings functions are
+implemented efficiently, this helps real programs as well as benchmark
+programs.
+
+I admit that the string comparison in Dhrystone terminates later (after
+scanning 20 characters) than most string comparisons in real programs. For
+consistency with the original benchmark, I didn't change the program despite
+this weakness.
+
+
+5. Intended Use of Dhrystone
+
+When Dhrystone is used, the following "ground rules" apply:
+
+o Separate compilation (Ada and C versions)
+
+ As mentioned in [1], Dhrystone was written to reflect actual programming
+ practice in systems programming. The division into several compilation
+ units (5 in the Ada version, 2 in the C version) is intended, as is the
+ distribution of inter-module and intra-module subprogram calls. Although on
+ many systems there will be no difference in execution time to a Dhrystone
+ version where all compilation units are merged into one file, the rule is
+ that separate compilation should be used. The intention is that real
+ programming practice, where programs consist of several independently
+ compiled units, should be reflected. This also has implies that the
+ compiler, while compiling one unit, has no information about the use of
+ variables, register allocation etc. occuring in other compilation units.
+ Although in real life compilation units will probably be larger, the
+ intention is that these effects of separate compilation are modeled in
+ Dhrystone.
+
+ A few language systems have post-linkage optimization available (e.g., final
+ register allocation is performed after linkage). This is a borderline case:
+ Post-linkage optimization involves additional program preparation time
+ (although not as much as compilation in one unit) which may prevent its
+ general use in practical programming. I think that since it defeats the
+ intentions given above, it should not be used for Dhrystone.
+
+ Unfortunately, ISO/ANSI Pascal does not contain language features for
+ separate compilation. Although most commercial Pascal compilers provide
+ separate compilation in some way, we cannot use it for Dhrystone since such
+ a version would not be portable. Therefore, no attempt has been made to
+ provide a Pascal version with several compilation units.
+
+o No procedure merging
+
+ Although Dhrystone contains some very short procedures where execution would
+ benefit from procedure merging (inlining, macro expansion of procedures),
+ procedure merging is not to be used. The reason is that the percentage of
+ procedure and function calls is part of the "Dhrystone distribution" of
+ statements contained in [1]. This restriction does not hold for the string
+ functions of the C version since ANSI C allows an implementation to use
+ inline code for these functions.
+
+o Other optimizations are allowed, but they should be indicated
+
+ It is often hard to draw an exact line between "normal code generation" and
+ "optimization" in compilers: Some compilers perform operations by default
+ that are invoked in other compilers only when optimization is explicitly
+ requested. Also, we cannot avoid that in benchmarking people try to achieve
+ results that look as good as possible. Therefore, optimizations performed
+ by compilers - other than those listed above - are not forbidden when
+ Dhrystone execution times are measured. Dhrystone is not intended to be
+ non-optimizable but is intended to be similarly optimizable as normal
+ programs. For example, there are several places in Dhrystone where
+ performance benefits from optimizations like common subexpression
+ elimination, value propagation etc., but normal programs usually also
+ benefit from these optimizations. Therefore, no effort was made to
+ artificially prevent such optimizations. However, measurement reports
+ should indicate which compiler optimization levels have been used, and
+ reporting results with different levels of compiler optimization for the
+ same hardware is encouraged.
+
+o Default results are those without "register" declarations (C version)
+
+ When Dhrystone results are quoted without additional qualification, they
+ should be understood as results obtained without use of the "register"
+ attribute. Good compilers should be able to make good use of registers even
+ without explicit register declarations ([3], p. 193).
+
+Of course, for experimental purposes, post-linkage optimization, procedure
+merging and/or compilation in one unit can be done to determine their effects.
+However, Dhrystone numbers obtained under these conditions should be
+explicitly marked as such; "normal" Dhrystone results should be understood as
+results obtained following the ground rules listed above.
+
+In any case, for serious performance evaluation, users are advised to ask for
+code listings and to check them carefully. In this way, when results for
+different systems are compared, the reader can get a feeling how much
+performance difference is due to compiler optimization and how much is due to
+hardware speed.
+
+
+6. Acknowledgements
+
+The C version 2.1 of Dhrystone has been developed in cooperation with Rick
+Richardson (Tinton Falls, NJ), it incorporates many ideas from the "Version
+1.1" distributed previously by him over the UNIX network Usenet. Through his
+activity with Usenet, Rick Richardson has made a very valuable contribution to
+the dissemination of the benchmark. I also thank Chaim Benedelac (National
+Semiconductor), David Ditzel (SUN), Earl Killian and John Mashey (MIPS), Alan
+Smith and Rafael Saavedra-Barrera (UC at Berkeley) for their help with
+comments on earlier versions of the benchmark.
+
+
+7. Bibliography
+
+[1]
+ Reinhold P. Weicker: Dhrystone: A Synthetic Systems Programming Benchmark.
+ Communications of the ACM 27, 10 (Oct. 1984), 1013-1030
+
+[2]
+ Rick Richardson: Dhrystone 1.1 Benchmark Summary (and Program Text)
+ Informal Distribution via "Usenet", Last Version Known to me: Sept. 21,
+ 1987
+
+[3]
+ Brian W. Kernighan and Dennis M. Ritchie: The C Programming Language.
+ Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs (NJ) 1978
+
diff --git a/zpu/roadshow/roadshow/dhrystone/README_C b/zpu/roadshow/roadshow/dhrystone/README_C
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..a27a192
--- /dev/null
+++ b/zpu/roadshow/roadshow/dhrystone/README_C
@@ -0,0 +1,78 @@
+This "shar" file contains the documentation for the
+electronic mail distribution of the Dhrystone benchmark (C version 2.1);
+a companion "shar" file contains the source code.
+(Because of mail length restrictions for some mailers, I have
+split the distribution in two parts.)
+
+For versions in other languages, see the other "shar" files.
+
+Files containing the C version (*.h: Header File, *.c: C Modules)
+
+ dhry.h
+ dhry_1.c
+ dhry_2.c
+
+The file RATIONALE contains the article
+
+ "Dhrystone Benchmark: Rationale for Version 2 and Measurement Rules"
+
+which has been published, together with the C source code (Version 2.0),
+in SIGPLAN Notices vol. 23, no. 8 (Aug. 1988), pp. 49-62.
+This article explains all changes that have been made for Version 2,
+compared with the version of the original publication
+in Communications of the ACM vol. 27, no. 10 (Oct. 1984), pp. 1013-1030.
+It also contains "ground rules" for benchmarking with Dhrystone
+which should be followed by everyone who uses the program and publishes
+Dhrystone results.
+
+Compared with the Version 2.0 published in SIGPLAN Notices, Version 2.1
+contains a few corrections that have been made after Version 2.0 was
+distriobuted over the UNIX network Usenet. These small differences between
+Version 2.0 and 2.1 should not affect execution time measurements.
+For those who want to compare the exact contents of both versions,
+the file "dhry_c.dif" contains the differences between the two versions,
+as generated by a file comparison of the corresponding files with the
+UNIX utility "diff".
+
+The file VARIATIONS contains the article
+
+ "Understanding Variations in Dhrystone Performance"
+
+which has been published in Microprocessor Report, May 1989
+(Editor: M. Slater), pp. 16-17. It describes the points that users
+should know if C Dhrystone results are compared.
+
+Recipients of this shar file who perform measurements are asked
+to send measurement results to the author and/or to Rick Richardson.
+Rick Richardson publishes regularly Dhrystone results on the UNIX network
+Usenet. For submissions of results to him (preferably by electronic mail,
+see address in the program header), he has provided a form which is contained
+in the file "submit.frm".
+
+
+The following files are contained in other "shar" files:
+
+Files containing the Ada version (*.s: Specifications, *.b: Bodies):
+
+ d_global.s
+ d_main.b
+ d_pack_1.b
+ d_pack_1.s
+ d_pack_2.b
+ d_pack_2.s
+
+File containing the Pascal version:
+
+ dhry.p
+
+
+February 22, 1990
+
+ Reinhold P. Weicker
+ Siemens AG, AUT E 51
+ Postfach 3220
+ D-8520 Erlangen
+ Germany (West)
+
+ Phone: [xxx-49]-9131-7-20330 (8-17 Central European Time)
+ UUCP: ..!mcsun!unido!estevax!weicker
diff --git a/zpu/roadshow/roadshow/dhrystone/VARIATIONS b/zpu/roadshow/roadshow/dhrystone/VARIATIONS
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..3046cbd
--- /dev/null
+++ b/zpu/roadshow/roadshow/dhrystone/VARIATIONS
@@ -0,0 +1,157 @@
+
+ Understanding Variations in Dhrystone Performance
+
+
+
+ By Reinhold P. Weicker, Siemens AG, AUT E 51, Erlangen
+
+
+
+ April 1989
+
+
+ This article has appeared in:
+
+
+ Microprocessor Report, May 1989 (Editor: M. Slater), pp. 16-17
+
+
+
+
+Microprocessor manufacturers tend to credit all the performance measured by
+benchmarks to the speed of their processors, they often don't even mention the
+programming language and compiler used. In their detailed documents, usually
+called "performance brief" or "performance report," they usually do give more
+details. However, these details are often lost in the press releases and other
+marketing statements. For serious performance evaluation, it is necessary to
+study the code generated by the various compilers.
+
+Dhrystone was originally published in Ada (Communications of the ACM, Oct.
+1984). However, since good Ada compilers were rare at this time and, together
+with UNIX, C became more and more popular, the C version of Dhrystone is the
+one now mainly used in industry. There are "official" versions 2.1 for Ada,
+Pascal, and C, which are as close together as the languages' semantic
+differences permit.
+
+Dhrystone contains two statements where the programming language and its
+translation play a major part in the execution time measured by the benchmark:
+
+ o String assignment (in procedure Proc_0 / main)
+ o String comparison (in function Func_2)
+
+In Ada and Pascal, strings are arrays of characters where the length of the
+string is part of the type information known at compile time. In C, strings
+are also arrays of characters, but there are no operators defined in the
+language for assignment and comparison of strings. Instead, functions
+"strcpy" and "strcmp" are used. These functions are defined for strings of
+arbitrary length, and make use of the fact that strings in C have to end with
+a terminating null byte. For general-purpose calls to these functions, the
+implementor can assume nothing about the length and the alignment of the
+strings involved.
+
+The C version of Dhrystone spends a relatively large amount of time in these
+two functions. Some time ago, I made measurements on a VAX 11/785 with the
+Berkeley UNIX (4.2) compilers (often-used compilers, but certainly not the
+most advanced). In the C version, 23% of the time was spent in the string
+functions; in the Pascal version, only 10%. On good RISC machines (where less
+time is spent in the procedure calling sequence than on a VAX) and with better
+optimizing compilers, the percentage is higher; MIPS has reported 34% for an
+R3000. Because of this effect, Pascal and Ada Dhrystone results are usually
+better than C results (except when the optimization quality of the C compiler
+is considerably better than that of the other compilers).
+
+Several people have noted that the string operations are over-represented in
+Dhrystone, mainly because the strings occurring in Dhrystone are longer than
+average strings. I admit that this is true, and have said so in my SIGPLAN
+Notices paper (Aug. 1988); however, I didn't want to generate confusion by
+changing the string lengths from version 1 to version 2.
+
+Even if they are somewhat over-represented in Dhrystone, string operations are
+frequent enough that it makes sense to implement them in the most efficient
+way possible, not only for benchmarking purposes. This means that they can
+and should be written in assembly language code. ANSI C also explicitly allows
+the strings functions to be implemented as macros, i.e. by inline code.
+
+There is also a third way to speed up the "strcpy" statement in Dhrystone: For
+this particular "strcpy" statement, the source of the assignment is a string
+constant. Therefore, in contrast to calls to "strcpy" in the general case, the
+compiler knows the length and alignment of the strings involved at compile
+time and can generate code in the same efficient way as a Pascal compiler
+(word instructions instead of byte instructions).
+
+This is not allowed in the case of the "strcmp" call: Here, the addresses are
+formal procedure parameters, and no assumptions can be made about the length
+or alignment of the strings. Any such assumptions would indicate an incorrect
+implementation. They might work for Dhrystone, where the strings are in fact
+word-aligned with typical compilers, but other programs would deliver
+incorrect results.
+
+So, for an apple-to-apple comparison between processors, and not between
+several possible (legal or illegal) degrees of compiler optimization, one
+should check that the systems are comparable with respect to the following
+three points:
+
+ (1) String functions in assembly language vs. in C
+
+ Frequently used functions such as the string functions can and should be
+ written in assembly language, and all serious C language systems known
+ to me do this. (I list this point for completeness only.) Note that
+ processors with an instruction that checks a word for a null byte (such
+ as AMD's 29000 and Intel's 80960) have an advantage here. (This
+ advantage decreases relatively if optimization (3) is applied.) Due to
+ the length of the strings involved in Dhrystone, this advantage may be
+ considered too high in perspective, but it is certainly legal to use
+ such instructions - after all, these situations are what they were
+ invented for.
+
+ (2) String function code inline vs. as library functions.
+
+ ANSI C has created a new situation, compared with the older
+ Kernighan/Ritchie C. In the original C, the definition of the string
+ function was not part of the language. Now it is, and inlining is
+ explicitly allowed. I probably should have stated more clearly in my
+ SIGPLAN Notices paper that the rule "No procedure inlining for
+ Dhrystone" referred to the user level procedures only and not to the
+ library routines.
+
+ (3) Fixed-length and alignment assumptions for the strings
+
+ Compilers should be allowed to optimize in these cases if (and only if)
+ it is safe to do so. For Dhrystone, this is the "strcpy" statement, but
+ not the "strcmp" statement (unless, of course, the "strcmp" code
+ explicitly checks the alignment at execution time and branches
+ accordingly). A "Dhrystone switch" for the compiler that causes the
+ generation of code that may not work under certain circumstances is
+ certainly inappropriate for comparisons. It has been reported in Usenet
+ that some C compilers provide such a compiler option; since I don't have
+ access to all C compilers involved, I cannot verify this.
+
+ If the fixed-length and word-alignment assumption can be used, a wide
+ bus that permits fast multi-word load instructions certainly does help;
+ however, this fact by itself should not make a really big difference.
+
+A check of these points - something that is necessary for a thorough
+evaluation and comparison of the Dhrystone performance claims - requires
+object code listings as well as listings for the string functions (strcpy,
+strcmp) that are possibly called by the program.
+
+I don't pretend that Dhrystone is a perfect tool to measure the integer
+performance of microprocessors. The more it is used and discussed, the more I
+myself learn about aspects that I hadn't noticed yet when I wrote the program.
+And of course, the very success of a benchmark program is a danger in that
+people may tune their compilers and/or hardware to it, and with this action
+make it less useful.
+
+Whetstone and Linpack have their critical points also: The Whetstone rating
+depends heavily on the speed of the mathematical functions (sine, sqrt, ...),
+and Linpack is sensitive to data alignment for some cache configurations.
+
+Introduction of a standard set of public domain benchmark software (something
+the SPEC effort attempts) is certainly a worthwhile thing. In the meantime,
+people will continue to use whatever is available and widely distributed, and
+Dhrystone ratings are probably still better than MIPS ratings if these are -
+as often in industry - based on no reproducible derivation. However, any
+serious performance evaluation requires more than just a comparison of raw
+numbers; one has to make sure that the numbers have been obtained in a
+comparable way.
+
diff --git a/zpu/roadshow/roadshow/dhrystone/build.sh b/zpu/roadshow/roadshow/dhrystone/build.sh
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..5bba707
--- /dev/null
+++ b/zpu/roadshow/roadshow/dhrystone/build.sh
@@ -0,0 +1,7 @@
+zpu-elf-gcc -phi -DTIME dhry_1.c dhry_2.c -O3 -Wl,--relax -Wl,--gc-sections -o dhrystone.elf
+zpu-elf-size *.elf
+zpu-elf-objcopy -O binary dhrystone.elf dhrystone.bin
+sh ../build/makefirmware.sh dhrystone.bin dhrystone.zpu
+
+
+
diff --git a/zpu/roadshow/roadshow/dhrystone/dhry-c b/zpu/roadshow/roadshow/dhrystone/dhry-c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..4cec46c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/zpu/roadshow/roadshow/dhrystone/dhry-c
@@ -0,0 +1,1779 @@
+# to unbundle, sh this file (in an empty directory)
+echo RATIONALE 1>&2
+sed >RATIONALE <<'//GO.SYSIN DD RATIONALE' 's/^-//'
+-
+-
+- Dhrystone Benchmark: Rationale for Version 2 and Measurement Rules
+-
+- [published in SIGPLAN Notices 23,8 (Aug. 1988), 49-62]
+-
+-
+- Reinhold P. Weicker
+- Siemens AG, E STE 35
+- [now: Siemens AG, AUT E 51]
+- Postfach 3220
+- D-8520 Erlangen
+- Germany (West)
+-
+-
+-
+-
+-1. Why a Version 2 of Dhrystone?
+-
+-The Dhrystone benchmark program [1] has become a popular benchmark for
+-CPU/compiler performance measurement, in particular in the area of
+-minicomputers, workstations, PC's and microprocesors. It apparently satisfies
+-a need for an easy-to-use integer benchmark; it gives a first performance
+-indication which is more meaningful than MIPS numbers which, in their literal
+-meaning (million instructions per second), cannot be used across different
+-instruction sets (e.g. RISC vs. CISC). With the increasing use of the
+-benchmark, it seems necessary to reconsider the benchmark and to check whether
+-it can still fulfill this function. Version 2 of Dhrystone is the result of
+-such a re-evaluation, it has been made for two reasons:
+-
+-o Dhrystone has been published in Ada [1], and Versions in Ada, Pascal and C
+- have been distributed by Reinhold Weicker via floppy disk. However, the
+- version that was used most often for benchmarking has been the version made
+- by Rick Richardson by another translation from the Ada version into the C
+- programming language, this has been the version distributed via the UNIX
+- network Usenet [2].
+-
+- There is an obvious need for a common C version of Dhrystone, since C is at
+- present the most popular system programming language for the class of
+- systems (microcomputers, minicomputers, workstations) where Dhrystone is
+- used most. There should be, as far as possible, only one C version of
+- Dhrystone such that results can be compared without restrictions. In the
+- past, the C versions distributed by Rick Richardson (Version 1.1) and by
+- Reinhold Weicker had small (though not significant) differences.
+-
+- Together with the new C version, the Ada and Pascal versions have been
+- updated as well.
+-
+-o As far as it is possible without changes to the Dhrystone statistics,
+- optimizing compilers should be prevented from removing significant
+- statements. It has turned out in the past that optimizing compilers
+- suppressed code generation for too many statements (by "dead code removal"
+- or "dead variable elimination"). This has lead to the danger that
+- benchmarking results obtained by a naive application of Dhrystone - without
+- inspection of the code that was generated - could become meaningless.
+-
+-The overall policiy for version 2 has been that the distribution of
+-statements, operand types and operand locality described in [1] should remain
+-unchanged as much as possible. (Very few changes were necessary; their impact
+-should be negligible.) Also, the order of statements should remain unchanged.
+-Although I am aware of some critical remarks on the benchmark - I agree with
+-several of them - and know some suggestions for improvement, I didn't want to
+-change the benchmark into something different from what has become known as
+-"Dhrystone"; the confusion generated by such a change would probably outweight
+-the benefits. If I were to write a new benchmark program, I wouldn't give it
+-the name "Dhrystone" since this denotes the program published in [1].
+-However, I do recognize the need for a larger number of representative
+-programs that can be used as benchmarks; users should always be encouraged to
+-use more than just one benchmark.
+-
+-The new versions (version 2.1 for C, Pascal and Ada) will be distributed as
+-widely as possible. (Version 2.1 differs from version 2.0 distributed via the
+-UNIX Network Usenet in March 1988 only in a few corrections for minor
+-deficiencies found by users of version 2.0.) Readers who want to use the
+-benchmark for their own measurements can obtain a copy in machine-readable
+-form on floppy disk (MS-DOS or XENIX format) from the author.
+-
+-
+-2. Overall Characteristics of Version 2
+-
+-In general, version 2 follows - in the parts that are significant for
+-performance measurement, i.e. within the measurement loop - the published
+-(Ada) version and the C versions previously distributed. Where the versions
+-distributed by Rick Richardson [2] and Reinhold Weicker have been different,
+-it follows the version distributed by Reinhold Weicker. (However, the
+-differences have been so small that their impact on execution time in all
+-likelihood has been negligible.) The initialization and UNIX instrumentation
+-part - which had been omitted in [1] - follows mostly the ideas of Rick
+-Richardson [2]. However, any changes in the initialization part and in the
+-printing of the result have no impact on performance measurement since they
+-are outside the measaurement loop. As a concession to older compilers, names
+-have been made unique within the first 8 characters for the C version.
+-
+-The original publication of Dhrystone did not contain any statements for time
+-measurement since they are necessarily system-dependent. However, it turned
+-out that it is not enough just to inclose the main procedure of Dhrystone in a
+-loop and to measure the execution time. If the variables that are computed
+-are not used somehow, there is the danger that the compiler considers them as
+-"dead variables" and suppresses code generation for a part of the statements.
+-Therefore in version 2 all variables of "main" are printed at the end of the
+-program. This also permits some plausibility control for correct execution of
+-the benchmark.
+-
+-At several places in the benchmark, code has been added, but only in branches
+-that are not executed. The intention is that optimizing compilers should be
+-prevented from moving code out of the measurement loop, or from removing code
+-altogether. Statements that are executed have been changed in very few places
+-only. In these cases, only the role of some operands has been changed, and it
+-was made sure that the numbers defining the "Dhrystone distribution"
+-(distribution of statements, operand types and locality) still hold as much as
+-possible. Except for sophisticated optimizing compilers, execution times for
+-version 2.1 should be the same as for previous versions.
+-
+-Because of the self-imposed limitation that the order and distribution of the
+-executed statements should not be changed, there are still cases where
+-optimizing compilers may not generate code for some statements. To a certain
+-degree, this is unavoidable for small synthetic benchmarks. Users of the
+-benchmark are advised to check code listings whether code is generated for all
+-statements of Dhrystone.
+-
+-Contrary to the suggestion in the published paper and its realization in the
+-versions previously distributed, no attempt has been made to subtract the time
+-for the measurement loop overhead. (This calculation has proven difficult to
+-implement in a correct way, and its omission makes the program simpler.)
+-However, since the loop check is now part of the benchmark, this does have an
+-impact - though a very minor one - on the distribution statistics which have
+-been updated for this version.
+-
+-
+-3. Discussion of Individual Changes
+-
+-In this section, all changes are described that affect the measurement loop
+-and that are not just renamings of variables. All remarks refer to the C
+-version; the other language versions have been updated similarly.
+-
+-In addition to adding the measurement loop and the printout statements,
+-changes have been made at the following places:
+-
+-o In procedure "main", three statements have been added in the non-executed
+- "then" part of the statement
+-
+- if (Enum_Loc == Func_1 (Ch_Index, 'C'))
+-
+- they are
+-
+- strcpy (Str_2_Loc, "DHRYSTONE PROGRAM, 3'RD STRING");
+- Int_2_Loc = Run_Index;
+- Int_Glob = Run_Index;
+-
+- The string assignment prevents movement of the preceding assignment to
+- Str_2_Loc (5'th statement of "main") out of the measurement loop (This
+- probably will not happen for the C version, but it did happen with another
+- language and compiler.) The assignment to Int_2_Loc prevents value
+- propagation for Int_2_Loc, and the assignment to Int_Glob makes the value of
+- Int_Glob possibly dependent from the value of Run_Index.
+-
+-o In the three arithmetic computations at the end of the measurement loop in
+- "main ", the role of some variables has been exchanged, to prevent the
+- division from just cancelling out the multiplication as it was in [1]. A
+- very smart compiler might have recognized this and suppressed code
+- generation for the division.
+-
+-o For Proc_2, no code has been changed, but the values of the actual parameter
+- have changed due to changes in "main".
+-
+-o In Proc_4, the second assignment has been changed from
+-
+- Bool_Loc = Bool_Loc | Bool_Glob;
+-
+- to
+-
+- Bool_Glob = Bool_Loc | Bool_Glob;
+-
+- It now assigns a value to a global variable instead of a local variable
+- (Bool_Loc); Bool_Loc would be a "dead variable" which is not used
+- afterwards.
+-
+-o In Func_1, the statement
+-
+- Ch_1_Glob = Ch_1_Loc;
+-
+- was added in the non-executed "else" part of the "if" statement, to prevent
+- the suppression of code generation for the assignment to Ch_1_Loc.
+-
+-o In Func_2, the second character comparison statement has been changed to
+-
+- if (Ch_Loc == 'R')
+-
+- ('R' instead of 'X') because a comparison with 'X' is implied in the
+- preceding "if" statement.
+-
+- Also in Func_2, the statement
+-
+- Int_Glob = Int_Loc;
+-
+- has been added in the non-executed part of the last "if" statement, in order
+- to prevent Int_Loc from becoming a dead variable.
+-
+-o In Func_3, a non-executed "else" part has been added to the "if" statement.
+- While the program would not be incorrect without this "else" part, it is
+- considered bad programming practice if a function can be left without a
+- return value.
+-
+- To compensate for this change, the (non-executed) "else" part in the "if"
+- statement of Proc_3 was removed.
+-
+-The distribution statistics have been changed only by the addition of the
+-measurement loop iteration (1 additional statement, 4 additional local integer
+-operands) and by the change in Proc_4 (one operand changed from local to
+-global). The distribution statistics in the comment headers have been updated
+-accordingly.
+-
+-
+-4. String Operations
+-
+-The string operations (string assignment and string comparison) have not been
+-changed, to keep the program consistent with the original version.
+-
+-There has been some concern that the string operations are over-represented in
+-the program, and that execution time is dominated by these operations. This
+-was true in particular when optimizing compilers removed too much code in the
+-main part of the program, this should have been mitigated in version 2.
+-
+-It should be noted that this is a language-dependent issue: Dhrystone was
+-first published in Ada, and with Ada or Pascal semantics, the time spent in
+-the string operations is, at least in all implementations known to me,
+-considerably smaller. In Ada and Pascal, assignment and comparison of strings
+-are operators defined in the language, and the upper bounds of the strings
+-occuring in Dhrystone are part of the type information known at compilation
+-time. The compilers can therefore generate efficient inline code. In C,
+-string assignemt and comparisons are not part of the language, so the string
+-operations must be expressed in terms of the C library functions "strcpy" and
+-"strcmp". (ANSI C allows an implementation to use inline code for these
+-functions.) In addition to the overhead caused by additional function calls,
+-these functions are defined for null-terminated strings where the length of
+-the strings is not known at compilation time; the function has to check every
+-byte for the termination condition (the null byte).
+-
+-Obviously, a C library which includes efficiently coded "strcpy" and "strcmp"
+-functions helps to obtain good Dhrystone results. However, I don't think that
+-this is unfair since string functions do occur quite frequently in real
+-programs (editors, command interpreters, etc.). If the strings functions are
+-implemented efficiently, this helps real programs as well as benchmark
+-programs.
+-
+-I admit that the string comparison in Dhrystone terminates later (after
+-scanning 20 characters) than most string comparisons in real programs. For
+-consistency with the original benchmark, I didn't change the program despite
+-this weakness.
+-
+-
+-5. Intended Use of Dhrystone
+-
+-When Dhrystone is used, the following "ground rules" apply:
+-
+-o Separate compilation (Ada and C versions)
+-
+- As mentioned in [1], Dhrystone was written to reflect actual programming
+- practice in systems programming. The division into several compilation
+- units (5 in the Ada version, 2 in the C version) is intended, as is the
+- distribution of inter-module and intra-module subprogram calls. Although on
+- many systems there will be no difference in execution time to a Dhrystone
+- version where all compilation units are merged into one file, the rule is
+- that separate compilation should be used. The intention is that real
+- programming practice, where programs consist of several independently
+- compiled units, should be reflected. This also has implies that the
+- compiler, while compiling one unit, has no information about the use of
+- variables, register allocation etc. occuring in other compilation units.
+- Although in real life compilation units will probably be larger, the
+- intention is that these effects of separate compilation are modeled in
+- Dhrystone.
+-
+- A few language systems have post-linkage optimization available (e.g., final
+- register allocation is performed after linkage). This is a borderline case:
+- Post-linkage optimization involves additional program preparation time
+- (although not as much as compilation in one unit) which may prevent its
+- general use in practical programming. I think that since it defeats the
+- intentions given above, it should not be used for Dhrystone.
+-
+- Unfortunately, ISO/ANSI Pascal does not contain language features for
+- separate compilation. Although most commercial Pascal compilers provide
+- separate compilation in some way, we cannot use it for Dhrystone since such
+- a version would not be portable. Therefore, no attempt has been made to
+- provide a Pascal version with several compilation units.
+-
+-o No procedure merging
+-
+- Although Dhrystone contains some very short procedures where execution would
+- benefit from procedure merging (inlining, macro expansion of procedures),
+- procedure merging is not to be used. The reason is that the percentage of
+- procedure and function calls is part of the "Dhrystone distribution" of
+- statements contained in [1]. This restriction does not hold for the string
+- functions of the C version since ANSI C allows an implementation to use
+- inline code for these functions.
+-
+-o Other optimizations are allowed, but they should be indicated
+-
+- It is often hard to draw an exact line between "normal code generation" and
+- "optimization" in compilers: Some compilers perform operations by default
+- that are invoked in other compilers only when optimization is explicitly
+- requested. Also, we cannot avoid that in benchmarking people try to achieve
+- results that look as good as possible. Therefore, optimizations performed
+- by compilers - other than those listed above - are not forbidden when
+- Dhrystone execution times are measured. Dhrystone is not intended to be
+- non-optimizable but is intended to be similarly optimizable as normal
+- programs. For example, there are several places in Dhrystone where
+- performance benefits from optimizations like common subexpression
+- elimination, value propagation etc., but normal programs usually also
+- benefit from these optimizations. Therefore, no effort was made to
+- artificially prevent such optimizations. However, measurement reports
+- should indicate which compiler optimization levels have been used, and
+- reporting results with different levels of compiler optimization for the
+- same hardware is encouraged.
+-
+-o Default results are those without "register" declarations (C version)
+-
+- When Dhrystone results are quoted without additional qualification, they
+- should be understood as results obtained without use of the "register"
+- attribute. Good compilers should be able to make good use of registers even
+- without explicit register declarations ([3], p. 193).
+-
+-Of course, for experimental purposes, post-linkage optimization, procedure
+-merging and/or compilation in one unit can be done to determine their effects.
+-However, Dhrystone numbers obtained under these conditions should be
+-explicitly marked as such; "normal" Dhrystone results should be understood as
+-results obtained following the ground rules listed above.
+-
+-In any case, for serious performance evaluation, users are advised to ask for
+-code listings and to check them carefully. In this way, when results for
+-different systems are compared, the reader can get a feeling how much
+-performance difference is due to compiler optimization and how much is due to
+-hardware speed.
+-
+-
+-6. Acknowledgements
+-
+-The C version 2.1 of Dhrystone has been developed in cooperation with Rick
+-Richardson (Tinton Falls, NJ), it incorporates many ideas from the "Version
+-1.1" distributed previously by him over the UNIX network Usenet. Through his
+-activity with Usenet, Rick Richardson has made a very valuable contribution to
+-the dissemination of the benchmark. I also thank Chaim Benedelac (National
+-Semiconductor), David Ditzel (SUN), Earl Killian and John Mashey (MIPS), Alan
+-Smith and Rafael Saavedra-Barrera (UC at Berkeley) for their help with
+-comments on earlier versions of the benchmark.
+-
+-
+-7. Bibliography
+-
+-[1]
+- Reinhold P. Weicker: Dhrystone: A Synthetic Systems Programming Benchmark.
+- Communications of the ACM 27, 10 (Oct. 1984), 1013-1030
+-
+-[2]
+- Rick Richardson: Dhrystone 1.1 Benchmark Summary (and Program Text)
+- Informal Distribution via "Usenet", Last Version Known to me: Sept. 21,
+- 1987
+-
+-[3]
+- Brian W. Kernighan and Dennis M. Ritchie: The C Programming Language.
+- Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs (NJ) 1978
+-
+//GO.SYSIN DD RATIONALE
+echo README_C 1>&2
+sed >README_C <<'//GO.SYSIN DD README_C' 's/^-//'
+-This "shar" file contains the documentation for the
+-electronic mail distribution of the Dhrystone benchmark (C version 2.1);
+-a companion "shar" file contains the source code.
+-(Because of mail length restrictions for some mailers, I have
+-split the distribution in two parts.)
+-
+-For versions in other languages, see the other "shar" files.
+-
+-Files containing the C version (*.h: Header File, *.c: C Modules)
+-
+- dhry.h
+- dhry_1.c
+- dhry_2.c
+-
+-The file RATIONALE contains the article
+-
+- "Dhrystone Benchmark: Rationale for Version 2 and Measurement Rules"
+-
+-which has been published, together with the C source code (Version 2.0),
+-in SIGPLAN Notices vol. 23, no. 8 (Aug. 1988), pp. 49-62.
+-This article explains all changes that have been made for Version 2,
+-compared with the version of the original publication
+-in Communications of the ACM vol. 27, no. 10 (Oct. 1984), pp. 1013-1030.
+-It also contains "ground rules" for benchmarking with Dhrystone
+-which should be followed by everyone who uses the program and publishes
+-Dhrystone results.
+-
+-Compared with the Version 2.0 published in SIGPLAN Notices, Version 2.1
+-contains a few corrections that have been made after Version 2.0 was
+-distriobuted over the UNIX network Usenet. These small differences between
+-Version 2.0 and 2.1 should not affect execution time measurements.
+-For those who want to compare the exact contents of both versions,
+-the file "dhry_c.dif" contains the differences between the two versions,
+-as generated by a file comparison of the corresponding files with the
+-UNIX utility "diff".
+-
+-The file VARIATIONS contains the article
+-
+- "Understanding Variations in Dhrystone Performance"
+-
+-which has been published in Microprocessor Report, May 1989
+-(Editor: M. Slater), pp. 16-17. It describes the points that users
+-should know if C Dhrystone results are compared.
+-
+-Recipients of this shar file who perform measurements are asked
+-to send measurement results to the author and/or to Rick Richardson.
+-Rick Richardson publishes regularly Dhrystone results on the UNIX network
+-Usenet. For submissions of results to him (preferably by electronic mail,
+-see address in the program header), he has provided a form which is contained
+-in the file "submit.frm".
+-
+-
+-The following files are contained in other "shar" files:
+-
+-Files containing the Ada version (*.s: Specifications, *.b: Bodies):
+-
+- d_global.s
+- d_main.b
+- d_pack_1.b
+- d_pack_1.s
+- d_pack_2.b
+- d_pack_2.s
+-
+-File containing the Pascal version:
+-
+- dhry.p
+-
+-
+-February 22, 1990
+-
+- Reinhold P. Weicker
+- Siemens AG, AUT E 51
+- Postfach 3220
+- D-8520 Erlangen
+- Germany (West)
+-
+- Phone: [xxx-49]-9131-7-20330 (8-17 Central European Time)
+- UUCP: ..!mcsun!unido!estevax!weicker
+//GO.SYSIN DD README_C
+echo VARIATIONS 1>&2
+sed >VARIATIONS <<'//GO.SYSIN DD VARIATIONS' 's/^-//'
+-
+- Understanding Variations in Dhrystone Performance
+-
+-
+-
+- By Reinhold P. Weicker, Siemens AG, AUT E 51, Erlangen
+-
+-
+-
+- April 1989
+-
+-
+- This article has appeared in:
+-
+-
+- Microprocessor Report, May 1989 (Editor: M. Slater), pp. 16-17
+-
+-
+-
+-
+-Microprocessor manufacturers tend to credit all the performance measured by
+-benchmarks to the speed of their processors, they often don't even mention the
+-programming language and compiler used. In their detailed documents, usually
+-called "performance brief" or "performance report," they usually do give more
+-details. However, these details are often lost in the press releases and other
+-marketing statements. For serious performance evaluation, it is necessary to
+-study the code generated by the various compilers.
+-
+-Dhrystone was originally published in Ada (Communications of the ACM, Oct.
+-1984). However, since good Ada compilers were rare at this time and, together
+-with UNIX, C became more and more popular, the C version of Dhrystone is the
+-one now mainly used in industry. There are "official" versions 2.1 for Ada,
+-Pascal, and C, which are as close together as the languages' semantic
+-differences permit.
+-
+-Dhrystone contains two statements where the programming language and its
+-translation play a major part in the execution time measured by the benchmark:
+-
+- o String assignment (in procedure Proc_0 / main)
+- o String comparison (in function Func_2)
+-
+-In Ada and Pascal, strings are arrays of characters where the length of the
+-string is part of the type information known at compile time. In C, strings
+-are also arrays of characters, but there are no operators defined in the
+-language for assignment and comparison of strings. Instead, functions
+-"strcpy" and "strcmp" are used. These functions are defined for strings of
+-arbitrary length, and make use of the fact that strings in C have to end with
+-a terminating null byte. For general-purpose calls to these functions, the
+-implementor can assume nothing about the length and the alignment of the
+-strings involved.
+-
+-The C version of Dhrystone spends a relatively large amount of time in these
+-two functions. Some time ago, I made measurements on a VAX 11/785 with the
+-Berkeley UNIX (4.2) compilers (often-used compilers, but certainly not the
+-most advanced). In the C version, 23% of the time was spent in the string
+-functions; in the Pascal version, only 10%. On good RISC machines (where less
+-time is spent in the procedure calling sequence than on a VAX) and with better
+-optimizing compilers, the percentage is higher; MIPS has reported 34% for an
+-R3000. Because of this effect, Pascal and Ada Dhrystone results are usually
+-better than C results (except when the optimization quality of the C compiler
+-is considerably better than that of the other compilers).
+-
+-Several people have noted that the string operations are over-represented in
+-Dhrystone, mainly because the strings occurring in Dhrystone are longer than
+-average strings. I admit that this is true, and have said so in my SIGPLAN
+-Notices paper (Aug. 1988); however, I didn't want to generate confusion by
+-changing the string lengths from version 1 to version 2.
+-
+-Even if they are somewhat over-represented in Dhrystone, string operations are
+-frequent enough that it makes sense to implement them in the most efficient
+-way possible, not only for benchmarking purposes. This means that they can
+-and should be written in assembly language code. ANSI C also explicitly allows
+-the strings functions to be implemented as macros, i.e. by inline code.
+-
+-There is also a third way to speed up the "strcpy" statement in Dhrystone: For
+-this particular "strcpy" statement, the source of the assignment is a string
+-constant. Therefore, in contrast to calls to "strcpy" in the general case, the
+-compiler knows the length and alignment of the strings involved at compile
+-time and can generate code in the same efficient way as a Pascal compiler
+-(word instructions instead of byte instructions).
+-
+-This is not allowed in the case of the "strcmp" call: Here, the addresses are
+-formal procedure parameters, and no assumptions can be made about the length
+-or alignment of the strings. Any such assumptions would indicate an incorrect
+-implementation. They might work for Dhrystone, where the strings are in fact
+-word-aligned with typical compilers, but other programs would deliver
+-incorrect results.
+-
+-So, for an apple-to-apple comparison between processors, and not between
+-several possible (legal or illegal) degrees of compiler optimization, one
+-should check that the systems are comparable with respect to the following
+-three points:
+-
+- (1) String functions in assembly language vs. in C
+-
+- Frequently used functions such as the string functions can and should be
+- written in assembly language, and all serious C language systems known
+- to me do this. (I list this point for completeness only.) Note that
+- processors with an instruction that checks a word for a null byte (such
+- as AMD's 29000 and Intel's 80960) have an advantage here. (This
+- advantage decreases relatively if optimization (3) is applied.) Due to
+- the length of the strings involved in Dhrystone, this advantage may be
+- considered too high in perspective, but it is certainly legal to use
+- such instructions - after all, these situations are what they were
+- invented for.
+-
+- (2) String function code inline vs. as library functions.
+-
+- ANSI C has created a new situation, compared with the older
+- Kernighan/Ritchie C. In the original C, the definition of the string
+- function was not part of the language. Now it is, and inlining is
+- explicitly allowed. I probably should have stated more clearly in my
+- SIGPLAN Notices paper that the rule "No procedure inlining for
+- Dhrystone" referred to the user level procedures only and not to the
+- library routines.
+-
+- (3) Fixed-length and alignment assumptions for the strings
+-
+- Compilers should be allowed to optimize in these cases if (and only if)
+- it is safe to do so. For Dhrystone, this is the "strcpy" statement, but
+- not the "strcmp" statement (unless, of course, the "strcmp" code
+- explicitly checks the alignment at execution time and branches
+- accordingly). A "Dhrystone switch" for the compiler that causes the
+- generation of code that may not work under certain circumstances is
+- certainly inappropriate for comparisons. It has been reported in Usenet
+- that some C compilers provide such a compiler option; since I don't have
+- access to all C compilers involved, I cannot verify this.
+-
+- If the fixed-length and word-alignment assumption can be used, a wide
+- bus that permits fast multi-word load instructions certainly does help;
+- however, this fact by itself should not make a really big difference.
+-
+-A check of these points - something that is necessary for a thorough
+-evaluation and comparison of the Dhrystone performance claims - requires
+-object code listings as well as listings for the string functions (strcpy,
+-strcmp) that are possibly called by the program.
+-
+-I don't pretend that Dhrystone is a perfect tool to measure the integer
+-performance of microprocessors. The more it is used and discussed, the more I
+-myself learn about aspects that I hadn't noticed yet when I wrote the program.
+-And of course, the very success of a benchmark program is a danger in that
+-people may tune their compilers and/or hardware to it, and with this action
+-make it less useful.
+-
+-Whetstone and Linpack have their critical points also: The Whetstone rating
+-depends heavily on the speed of the mathematical functions (sine, sqrt, ...),
+-and Linpack is sensitive to data alignment for some cache configurations.
+-
+-Introduction of a standard set of public domain benchmark software (something
+-the SPEC effort attempts) is certainly a worthwhile thing. In the meantime,
+-people will continue to use whatever is available and widely distributed, and
+-Dhrystone ratings are probably still better than MIPS ratings if these are -
+-as often in industry - based on no reproducible derivation. However, any
+-serious performance evaluation requires more than just a comparison of raw
+-numbers; one has to make sure that the numbers have been obtained in a
+-comparable way.
+-
+//GO.SYSIN DD VARIATIONS
+echo dhry.h 1>&2
+sed >dhry.h <<'//GO.SYSIN DD dhry.h' 's/^-//'
+-/*
+- ****************************************************************************
+- *
+- * "DHRYSTONE" Benchmark Program
+- * -----------------------------
+- *
+- * Version: C, Version 2.1
+- *
+- * File: dhry.h (part 1 of 3)
+- *
+- * Date: May 25, 1988
+- *
+- * Author: Reinhold P. Weicker
+- * Siemens AG, AUT E 51
+- * Postfach 3220
+- * 8520 Erlangen
+- * Germany (West)
+- * Phone: [+49]-9131-7-20330
+- * (8-17 Central European Time)
+- * Usenet: ..!mcsun!unido!estevax!weicker
+- *
+- * Original Version (in Ada) published in
+- * "Communications of the ACM" vol. 27., no. 10 (Oct. 1984),
+- * pp. 1013 - 1030, together with the statistics
+- * on which the distribution of statements etc. is based.
+- *
+- * In this C version, the following C library functions are used:
+- * - strcpy, strcmp (inside the measurement loop)
+- * - printf, scanf (outside the measurement loop)
+- * In addition, Berkeley UNIX system calls "times ()" or "time ()"
+- * are used for execution time measurement. For measurements
+- * on other systems, these calls have to be changed.
+- *
+- * Collection of Results:
+- * Reinhold Weicker (address see above) and
+- *
+- * Rick Richardson
+- * PC Research. Inc.
+- * 94 Apple Orchard Drive
+- * Tinton Falls, NJ 07724
+- * Phone: (201) 389-8963 (9-17 EST)
+- * Usenet: ...!uunet!pcrat!rick
+- *
+- * Please send results to Rick Richardson and/or Reinhold Weicker.
+- * Complete information should be given on hardware and software used.
+- * Hardware information includes: Machine type, CPU, type and size
+- * of caches; for microprocessors: clock frequency, memory speed
+- * (number of wait states).
+- * Software information includes: Compiler (and runtime library)
+- * manufacturer and version, compilation switches, OS version.
+- * The Operating System version may give an indication about the
+- * compiler; Dhrystone itself performs no OS calls in the measurement loop.
+- *
+- * The complete output generated by the program should be mailed
+- * such that at least some checks for correctness can be made.
+- *
+- ***************************************************************************
+- *
+- * History: This version C/2.1 has been made for two reasons:
+- *
+- * 1) There is an obvious need for a common C version of
+- * Dhrystone, since C is at present the most popular system
+- * programming language for the class of processors
+- * (microcomputers, minicomputers) where Dhrystone is used most.
+- * There should be, as far as possible, only one C version of
+- * Dhrystone such that results can be compared without
+- * restrictions. In the past, the C versions distributed
+- * by Rick Richardson (Version 1.1) and by Reinhold Weicker
+- * had small (though not significant) differences.
+- *
+- * 2) As far as it is possible without changes to the Dhrystone
+- * statistics, optimizing compilers should be prevented from
+- * removing significant statements.
+- *
+- * This C version has been developed in cooperation with
+- * Rick Richardson (Tinton Falls, NJ), it incorporates many
+- * ideas from the "Version 1.1" distributed previously by
+- * him over the UNIX network Usenet.
+- * I also thank Chaim Benedelac (National Semiconductor),
+- * David Ditzel (SUN), Earl Killian and John Mashey (MIPS),
+- * Alan Smith and Rafael Saavedra-Barrera (UC at Berkeley)
+- * for their help with comments on earlier versions of the
+- * benchmark.
+- *
+- * Changes: In the initialization part, this version follows mostly
+- * Rick Richardson's version distributed via Usenet, not the
+- * version distributed earlier via floppy disk by Reinhold Weicker.
+- * As a concession to older compilers, names have been made
+- * unique within the first 8 characters.
+- * Inside the measurement loop, this version follows the
+- * version previously distributed by Reinhold Weicker.
+- *
+- * At several places in the benchmark, code has been added,
+- * but within the measurement loop only in branches that
+- * are not executed. The intention is that optimizing compilers
+- * should be prevented from moving code out of the measurement
+- * loop, or from removing code altogether. Since the statements
+- * that are executed within the measurement loop have NOT been
+- * changed, the numbers defining the "Dhrystone distribution"
+- * (distribution of statements, operand types and locality)
+- * still hold. Except for sophisticated optimizing compilers,
+- * execution times for this version should be the same as
+- * for previous versions.
+- *
+- * Since it has proven difficult to subtract the time for the
+- * measurement loop overhead in a correct way, the loop check
+- * has been made a part of the benchmark. This does have
+- * an impact - though a very minor one - on the distribution
+- * statistics which have been updated for this version.
+- *
+- * All changes within the measurement loop are described
+- * and discussed in the companion paper "Rationale for
+- * Dhrystone version 2".
+- *
+- * Because of the self-imposed limitation that the order and
+- * distribution of the executed statements should not be
+- * changed, there are still cases where optimizing compilers
+- * may not generate code for some statements. To a certain
+- * degree, this is unavoidable for small synthetic benchmarks.
+- * Users of the benchmark are advised to check code listings
+- * whether code is generated for all statements of Dhrystone.
+- *
+- * Version 2.1 is identical to version 2.0 distributed via
+- * the UNIX network Usenet in March 1988 except that it corrects
+- * some minor deficiencies that were found by users of version 2.0.
+- * The only change within the measurement loop is that a
+- * non-executed "else" part was added to the "if" statement in
+- * Func_3, and a non-executed "else" part removed from Proc_3.
+- *
+- ***************************************************************************
+- *
+- * Defines: The following "Defines" are possible:
+- * -DREG=register (default: Not defined)
+- * As an approximation to what an average C programmer
+- * might do, the "register" storage class is applied
+- * (if enabled by -DREG=register)
+- * - for local variables, if they are used (dynamically)
+- * five or more times
+- * - for parameters if they are used (dynamically)
+- * six or more times
+- * Note that an optimal "register" strategy is
+- * compiler-dependent, and that "register" declarations
+- * do not necessarily lead to faster execution.
+- * -DNOSTRUCTASSIGN (default: Not defined)
+- * Define if the C compiler does not support
+- * assignment of structures.
+- * -DNOENUMS (default: Not defined)
+- * Define if the C compiler does not support
+- * enumeration types.
+- * -DTIMES (default)
+- * -DTIME
+- * The "times" function of UNIX (returning process times)
+- * or the "time" function (returning wallclock time)
+- * is used for measurement.
+- * For single user machines, "time ()" is adequate. For
+- * multi-user machines where you cannot get single-user
+- * access, use the "times ()" function. If you have
+- * neither, use a stopwatch in the dead of night.
+- * "printf"s are provided marking the points "Start Timer"
+- * and "Stop Timer". DO NOT use the UNIX "time(1)"
+- * command, as this will measure the total time to
+- * run this program, which will (erroneously) include
+- * the time to allocate storage (malloc) and to perform
+- * the initialization.
+- * -DHZ=nnn
+- * In Berkeley UNIX, the function "times" returns process
+- * time in 1/HZ seconds, with HZ = 60 for most systems.
+- * CHECK YOUR SYSTEM DESCRIPTION BEFORE YOU JUST APPLY
+- * A VALUE.
+- *
+- ***************************************************************************
+- *
+- * Compilation model and measurement (IMPORTANT):
+- *
+- * This C version of Dhrystone consists of three files:
+- * - dhry.h (this file, containing global definitions and comments)
+- * - dhry_1.c (containing the code corresponding to Ada package Pack_1)
+- * - dhry_2.c (containing the code corresponding to Ada package Pack_2)
+- *
+- * The following "ground rules" apply for measurements:
+- * - Separate compilation
+- * - No procedure merging
+- * - Otherwise, compiler optimizations are allowed but should be indicated
+- * - Default results are those without register declarations
+- * See the companion paper "Rationale for Dhrystone Version 2" for a more
+- * detailed discussion of these ground rules.
+- *
+- * For 16-Bit processors (e.g. 80186, 80286), times for all compilation
+- * models ("small", "medium", "large" etc.) should be given if possible,
+- * together with a definition of these models for the compiler system used.
+- *
+- **************************************************************************
+- *
+- * Dhrystone (C version) statistics:
+- *
+- * [Comment from the first distribution, updated for version 2.
+- * Note that because of language differences, the numbers are slightly
+- * different from the Ada version.]
+- *
+- * The following program contains statements of a high level programming
+- * language (here: C) in a distribution considered representative:
+- *
+- * assignments 52 (51.0 %)
+- * control statements 33 (32.4 %)
+- * procedure, function calls 17 (16.7 %)
+- *
+- * 103 statements are dynamically executed. The program is balanced with
+- * respect to the three aspects:
+- *
+- * - statement type
+- * - operand type
+- * - operand locality
+- * operand global, local, parameter, or constant.
+- *
+- * The combination of these three aspects is balanced only approximately.
+- *
+- * 1. Statement Type:
+- * ----------------- number
+- *
+- * V1 = V2 9
+- * (incl. V1 = F(..)
+- * V = Constant 12
+- * Assignment, 7
+- * with array element
+- * Assignment, 6
+- * with record component
+- * --
+- * 34 34
+- *
+- * X = Y +|-|"&&"|"|" Z 5
+- * X = Y +|-|"==" Constant 6
+- * X = X +|- 1 3
+- * X = Y *|/ Z 2
+- * X = Expression, 1
+- * two operators
+- * X = Expression, 1
+- * three operators
+- * --
+- * 18 18
+- *
+- * if .... 14
+- * with "else" 7
+- * without "else" 7
+- * executed 3
+- * not executed 4
+- * for ... 7 | counted every time
+- * while ... 4 | the loop condition
+- * do ... while 1 | is evaluated
+- * switch ... 1
+- * break 1
+- * declaration with 1
+- * initialization
+- * --
+- * 34 34
+- *
+- * P (...) procedure call 11
+- * user procedure 10
+- * library procedure 1
+- * X = F (...)
+- * function call 6
+- * user function 5
+- * library function 1
+- * --
+- * 17 17
+- * ---
+- * 103
+- *
+- * The average number of parameters in procedure or function calls
+- * is 1.82 (not counting the function values as implicit parameters).
+- *
+- *
+- * 2. Operators
+- * ------------
+- * number approximate
+- * percentage
+- *
+- * Arithmetic 32 50.8
+- *
+- * + 21 33.3
+- * - 7 11.1
+- * * 3 4.8
+- * / (int div) 1 1.6
+- *
+- * Comparison 27 42.8
+- *
+- * == 9 14.3
+- * /= 4 6.3
+- * > 1 1.6
+- * < 3 4.8
+- * >= 1 1.6
+- * <= 9 14.3
+- *
+- * Logic 4 6.3
+- *
+- * && (AND-THEN) 1 1.6
+- * | (OR) 1 1.6
+- * ! (NOT) 2 3.2
+- *
+- * -- -----
+- * 63 100.1
+- *
+- *
+- * 3. Operand Type (counted once per operand reference):
+- * ---------------
+- * number approximate
+- * percentage
+- *
+- * Integer 175 72.3 %
+- * Character 45 18.6 %
+- * Pointer 12 5.0 %
+- * String30 6 2.5 %
+- * Array 2 0.8 %
+- * Record 2 0.8 %
+- * --- -------
+- * 242 100.0 %
+- *
+- * When there is an access path leading to the final operand (e.g. a record
+- * component), only the final data type on the access path is counted.
+- *
+- *
+- * 4. Operand Locality:
+- * -------------------
+- * number approximate
+- * percentage
+- *
+- * local variable 114 47.1 %
+- * global variable 22 9.1 %
+- * parameter 45 18.6 %
+- * value 23 9.5 %
+- * reference 22 9.1 %
+- * function result 6 2.5 %
+- * constant 55 22.7 %
+- * --- -------
+- * 242 100.0 %
+- *
+- *
+- * The program does not compute anything meaningful, but it is syntactically
+- * and semantically correct. All variables have a value assigned to them
+- * before they are used as a source operand.
+- *
+- * There has been no explicit effort to account for the effects of a
+- * cache, or to balance the use of long or short displacements for code or
+- * data.
+- *
+- ***************************************************************************
+- */
+-
+-/* Compiler and system dependent definitions: */
+-
+-#ifndef TIME
+-#define TIMES
+-#endif
+- /* Use times(2) time function unless */
+- /* explicitly defined otherwise */
+-
+-#ifdef TIMES
+-#include <sys/types.h>
+-#include <sys/times.h>
+- /* for "times" */
+-#endif
+-
+-#define Mic_secs_Per_Second 1000000.0
+- /* Berkeley UNIX C returns process times in seconds/HZ */
+-
+-#ifdef NOSTRUCTASSIGN
+-#define structassign(d, s) memcpy(&(d), &(s), sizeof(d))
+-#else
+-#define structassign(d, s) d = s
+-#endif
+-
+-#ifdef NOENUM
+-#define Ident_1 0
+-#define Ident_2 1
+-#define Ident_3 2
+-#define Ident_4 3
+-#define Ident_5 4
+- typedef int Enumeration;
+-#else
+- typedef enum {Ident_1, Ident_2, Ident_3, Ident_4, Ident_5}
+- Enumeration;
+-#endif
+- /* for boolean and enumeration types in Ada, Pascal */
+-
+-/* General definitions: */
+-
+-#include <stdio.h>
+- /* for strcpy, strcmp */
+-
+-#define Null 0
+- /* Value of a Null pointer */
+-#define true 1
+-#define false 0
+-
+-typedef int One_Thirty;
+-typedef int One_Fifty;
+-typedef char Capital_Letter;
+-typedef int Boolean;
+-typedef char Str_30 [31];
+-typedef int Arr_1_Dim [50];
+-typedef int Arr_2_Dim [50] [50];
+-
+-typedef struct record
+- {
+- struct record *Ptr_Comp;
+- Enumeration Discr;
+- union {
+- struct {
+- Enumeration Enum_Comp;
+- int Int_Comp;
+- char Str_Comp [31];
+- } var_1;
+- struct {
+- Enumeration E_Comp_2;
+- char Str_2_Comp [31];
+- } var_2;
+- struct {
+- char Ch_1_Comp;
+- char Ch_2_Comp;
+- } var_3;
+- } variant;
+- } Rec_Type, *Rec_Pointer;
+-
+-
+//GO.SYSIN DD dhry.h
+echo dhry_1.c 1>&2
+sed >dhry_1.c <<'//GO.SYSIN DD dhry_1.c' 's/^-//'
+-/*
+- ****************************************************************************
+- *
+- * "DHRYSTONE" Benchmark Program
+- * -----------------------------
+- *
+- * Version: C, Version 2.1
+- *
+- * File: dhry_1.c (part 2 of 3)
+- *
+- * Date: May 25, 1988
+- *
+- * Author: Reinhold P. Weicker
+- *
+- ****************************************************************************
+- */
+-
+-#include "dhry.h"
+-
+-/* Global Variables: */
+-
+-Rec_Pointer Ptr_Glob,
+- Next_Ptr_Glob;
+-int Int_Glob;
+-Boolean Bool_Glob;
+-char Ch_1_Glob,
+- Ch_2_Glob;
+-int Arr_1_Glob [50];
+-int Arr_2_Glob [50] [50];
+-
+-extern char *malloc ();
+-Enumeration Func_1 ();
+- /* forward declaration necessary since Enumeration may not simply be int */
+-
+-#ifndef REG
+- Boolean Reg = false;
+-#define REG
+- /* REG becomes defined as empty */
+- /* i.e. no register variables */
+-#else
+- Boolean Reg = true;
+-#endif
+-
+-/* variables for time measurement: */
+-
+-#ifdef TIMES
+-struct tms time_info;
+-extern int times ();
+- /* see library function "times" */
+-#define Too_Small_Time 120
+- /* Measurements should last at least about 2 seconds */
+-#endif
+-#ifdef TIME
+-extern long time();
+- /* see library function "time" */
+-#define Too_Small_Time 2
+- /* Measurements should last at least 2 seconds */
+-#endif
+-
+-long Begin_Time,
+- End_Time,
+- User_Time;
+-float Microseconds,
+- Dhrystones_Per_Second;
+-
+-/* end of variables for time measurement */
+-
+-
+-main ()
+-/*****/
+-
+- /* main program, corresponds to procedures */
+- /* Main and Proc_0 in the Ada version */
+-{
+- One_Fifty Int_1_Loc;
+- REG One_Fifty Int_2_Loc;
+- One_Fifty Int_3_Loc;
+- REG char Ch_Index;
+- Enumeration Enum_Loc;
+- Str_30 Str_1_Loc;
+- Str_30 Str_2_Loc;
+- REG int Run_Index;
+- REG int Number_Of_Runs;
+-
+- /* Initializations */
+-
+- Next_Ptr_Glob = (Rec_Pointer) malloc (sizeof (Rec_Type));
+- Ptr_Glob = (Rec_Pointer) malloc (sizeof (Rec_Type));
+-
+- Ptr_Glob->Ptr_Comp = Next_Ptr_Glob;
+- Ptr_Glob->Discr = Ident_1;
+- Ptr_Glob->variant.var_1.Enum_Comp = Ident_3;
+- Ptr_Glob->variant.var_1.Int_Comp = 40;
+- strcpy (Ptr_Glob->variant.var_1.Str_Comp,
+- "DHRYSTONE PROGRAM, SOME STRING");
+- strcpy (Str_1_Loc, "DHRYSTONE PROGRAM, 1'ST STRING");
+-
+- Arr_2_Glob [8][7] = 10;
+- /* Was missing in published program. Without this statement, */
+- /* Arr_2_Glob [8][7] would have an undefined value. */
+- /* Warning: With 16-Bit processors and Number_Of_Runs > 32000, */
+- /* overflow may occur for this array element. */
+-
+- printf ("\n");
+- printf ("Dhrystone Benchmark, Version 2.1 (Language: C)\n");
+- printf ("\n");
+- if (Reg)
+- {
+- printf ("Program compiled with 'register' attribute\n");
+- printf ("\n");
+- }
+- else
+- {
+- printf ("Program compiled without 'register' attribute\n");
+- printf ("\n");
+- }
+- printf ("Please give the number of runs through the benchmark: ");
+- {
+- int n;
+- scanf ("%d", &n);
+- Number_Of_Runs = n;
+- }
+- printf ("\n");
+-
+- printf ("Execution starts, %d runs through Dhrystone\n", Number_Of_Runs);
+-
+- /***************/
+- /* Start timer */
+- /***************/
+-
+-#ifdef TIMES
+- times (&time_info);
+- Begin_Time = (long) time_info.tms_utime;
+-#endif
+-#ifdef TIME
+- Begin_Time = time ( (long *) 0);
+-#endif
+-
+- for (Run_Index = 1; Run_Index <= Number_Of_Runs; ++Run_Index)
+- {
+-
+- Proc_5();
+- Proc_4();
+- /* Ch_1_Glob == 'A', Ch_2_Glob == 'B', Bool_Glob == true */
+- Int_1_Loc = 2;
+- Int_2_Loc = 3;
+- strcpy (Str_2_Loc, "DHRYSTONE PROGRAM, 2'ND STRING");
+- Enum_Loc = Ident_2;
+- Bool_Glob = ! Func_2 (Str_1_Loc, Str_2_Loc);
+- /* Bool_Glob == 1 */
+- while (Int_1_Loc < Int_2_Loc) /* loop body executed once */
+- {
+- Int_3_Loc = 5 * Int_1_Loc - Int_2_Loc;
+- /* Int_3_Loc == 7 */
+- Proc_7 (Int_1_Loc, Int_2_Loc, &Int_3_Loc);
+- /* Int_3_Loc == 7 */
+- Int_1_Loc += 1;
+- } /* while */
+- /* Int_1_Loc == 3, Int_2_Loc == 3, Int_3_Loc == 7 */
+- Proc_8 (Arr_1_Glob, Arr_2_Glob, Int_1_Loc, Int_3_Loc);
+- /* Int_Glob == 5 */
+- Proc_1 (Ptr_Glob);
+- for (Ch_Index = 'A'; Ch_Index <= Ch_2_Glob; ++Ch_Index)
+- /* loop body executed twice */
+- {
+- if (Enum_Loc == Func_1 (Ch_Index, 'C'))
+- /* then, not executed */
+- {
+- Proc_6 (Ident_1, &Enum_Loc);
+- strcpy (Str_2_Loc, "DHRYSTONE PROGRAM, 3'RD STRING");
+- Int_2_Loc = Run_Index;
+- Int_Glob = Run_Index;
+- }
+- }
+- /* Int_1_Loc == 3, Int_2_Loc == 3, Int_3_Loc == 7 */
+- Int_2_Loc = Int_2_Loc * Int_1_Loc;
+- Int_1_Loc = Int_2_Loc / Int_3_Loc;
+- Int_2_Loc = 7 * (Int_2_Loc - Int_3_Loc) - Int_1_Loc;
+- /* Int_1_Loc == 1, Int_2_Loc == 13, Int_3_Loc == 7 */
+- Proc_2 (&Int_1_Loc);
+- /* Int_1_Loc == 5 */
+-
+- } /* loop "for Run_Index" */
+-
+- /**************/
+- /* Stop timer */
+- /**************/
+-
+-#ifdef TIMES
+- times (&time_info);
+- End_Time = (long) time_info.tms_utime;
+-#endif
+-#ifdef TIME
+- End_Time = time ( (long *) 0);
+-#endif
+-
+- printf ("Execution ends\n");
+- printf ("\n");
+- printf ("Final values of the variables used in the benchmark:\n");
+- printf ("\n");
+- printf ("Int_Glob: %d\n", Int_Glob);
+- printf (" should be: %d\n", 5);
+- printf ("Bool_Glob: %d\n", Bool_Glob);
+- printf (" should be: %d\n", 1);
+- printf ("Ch_1_Glob: %c\n", Ch_1_Glob);
+- printf (" should be: %c\n", 'A');
+- printf ("Ch_2_Glob: %c\n", Ch_2_Glob);
+- printf (" should be: %c\n", 'B');
+- printf ("Arr_1_Glob[8]: %d\n", Arr_1_Glob[8]);
+- printf (" should be: %d\n", 7);
+- printf ("Arr_2_Glob[8][7]: %d\n", Arr_2_Glob[8][7]);
+- printf (" should be: Number_Of_Runs + 10\n");
+- printf ("Ptr_Glob->\n");
+- printf (" Ptr_Comp: %d\n", (int) Ptr_Glob->Ptr_Comp);
+- printf (" should be: (implementation-dependent)\n");
+- printf (" Discr: %d\n", Ptr_Glob->Discr);
+- printf (" should be: %d\n", 0);
+- printf (" Enum_Comp: %d\n", Ptr_Glob->variant.var_1.Enum_Comp);
+- printf (" should be: %d\n", 2);
+- printf (" Int_Comp: %d\n", Ptr_Glob->variant.var_1.Int_Comp);
+- printf (" should be: %d\n", 17);
+- printf (" Str_Comp: %s\n", Ptr_Glob->variant.var_1.Str_Comp);
+- printf (" should be: DHRYSTONE PROGRAM, SOME STRING\n");
+- printf ("Next_Ptr_Glob->\n");
+- printf (" Ptr_Comp: %d\n", (int) Next_Ptr_Glob->Ptr_Comp);
+- printf (" should be: (implementation-dependent), same as above\n");
+- printf (" Discr: %d\n", Next_Ptr_Glob->Discr);
+- printf (" should be: %d\n", 0);
+- printf (" Enum_Comp: %d\n", Next_Ptr_Glob->variant.var_1.Enum_Comp);
+- printf (" should be: %d\n", 1);
+- printf (" Int_Comp: %d\n", Next_Ptr_Glob->variant.var_1.Int_Comp);
+- printf (" should be: %d\n", 18);
+- printf (" Str_Comp: %s\n",
+- Next_Ptr_Glob->variant.var_1.Str_Comp);
+- printf (" should be: DHRYSTONE PROGRAM, SOME STRING\n");
+- printf ("Int_1_Loc: %d\n", Int_1_Loc);
+- printf (" should be: %d\n", 5);
+- printf ("Int_2_Loc: %d\n", Int_2_Loc);
+- printf (" should be: %d\n", 13);
+- printf ("Int_3_Loc: %d\n", Int_3_Loc);
+- printf (" should be: %d\n", 7);
+- printf ("Enum_Loc: %d\n", Enum_Loc);
+- printf (" should be: %d\n", 1);
+- printf ("Str_1_Loc: %s\n", Str_1_Loc);
+- printf (" should be: DHRYSTONE PROGRAM, 1'ST STRING\n");
+- printf ("Str_2_Loc: %s\n", Str_2_Loc);
+- printf (" should be: DHRYSTONE PROGRAM, 2'ND STRING\n");
+- printf ("\n");
+-
+- User_Time = End_Time - Begin_Time;
+-
+- if (User_Time < Too_Small_Time)
+- {
+- printf ("Measured time too small to obtain meaningful results\n");
+- printf ("Please increase number of runs\n");
+- printf ("\n");
+- }
+- else
+- {
+-#ifdef TIME
+- Microseconds = (float) User_Time * Mic_secs_Per_Second
+- / (float) Number_Of_Runs;
+- Dhrystones_Per_Second = (float) Number_Of_Runs / (float) User_Time;
+-#else
+- Microseconds = (float) User_Time * Mic_secs_Per_Second
+- / ((float) HZ * ((float) Number_Of_Runs));
+- Dhrystones_Per_Second = ((float) HZ * (float) Number_Of_Runs)
+- / (float) User_Time;
+-#endif
+- printf ("Microseconds for one run through Dhrystone: ");
+- printf ("%6.1f \n", Microseconds);
+- printf ("Dhrystones per Second: ");
+- printf ("%6.1f \n", Dhrystones_Per_Second);
+- printf ("\n");
+- }
+-
+-}
+-
+-
+-Proc_1 (Ptr_Val_Par)
+-/******************/
+-
+-REG Rec_Pointer Ptr_Val_Par;
+- /* executed once */
+-{
+- REG Rec_Pointer Next_Record = Ptr_Val_Par->Ptr_Comp;
+- /* == Ptr_Glob_Next */
+- /* Local variable, initialized with Ptr_Val_Par->Ptr_Comp, */
+- /* corresponds to "rename" in Ada, "with" in Pascal */
+-
+- structassign (*Ptr_Val_Par->Ptr_Comp, *Ptr_Glob);
+- Ptr_Val_Par->variant.var_1.Int_Comp = 5;
+- Next_Record->variant.var_1.Int_Comp
+- = Ptr_Val_Par->variant.var_1.Int_Comp;
+- Next_Record->Ptr_Comp = Ptr_Val_Par->Ptr_Comp;
+- Proc_3 (&Next_Record->Ptr_Comp);
+- /* Ptr_Val_Par->Ptr_Comp->Ptr_Comp
+- == Ptr_Glob->Ptr_Comp */
+- if (Next_Record->Discr == Ident_1)
+- /* then, executed */
+- {
+- Next_Record->variant.var_1.Int_Comp = 6;
+- Proc_6 (Ptr_Val_Par->variant.var_1.Enum_Comp,
+- &Next_Record->variant.var_1.Enum_Comp);
+- Next_Record->Ptr_Comp = Ptr_Glob->Ptr_Comp;
+- Proc_7 (Next_Record->variant.var_1.Int_Comp, 10,
+- &Next_Record->variant.var_1.Int_Comp);
+- }
+- else /* not executed */
+- structassign (*Ptr_Val_Par, *Ptr_Val_Par->Ptr_Comp);
+-} /* Proc_1 */
+-
+-
+-Proc_2 (Int_Par_Ref)
+-/******************/
+- /* executed once */
+- /* *Int_Par_Ref == 1, becomes 4 */
+-
+-One_Fifty *Int_Par_Ref;
+-{
+- One_Fifty Int_Loc;
+- Enumeration Enum_Loc;
+-
+- Int_Loc = *Int_Par_Ref + 10;
+- do /* executed once */
+- if (Ch_1_Glob == 'A')
+- /* then, executed */
+- {
+- Int_Loc -= 1;
+- *Int_Par_Ref = Int_Loc - Int_Glob;
+- Enum_Loc = Ident_1;
+- } /* if */
+- while (Enum_Loc != Ident_1); /* true */
+-} /* Proc_2 */
+-
+-
+-Proc_3 (Ptr_Ref_Par)
+-/******************/
+- /* executed once */
+- /* Ptr_Ref_Par becomes Ptr_Glob */
+-
+-Rec_Pointer *Ptr_Ref_Par;
+-
+-{
+- if (Ptr_Glob != Null)
+- /* then, executed */
+- *Ptr_Ref_Par = Ptr_Glob->Ptr_Comp;
+- Proc_7 (10, Int_Glob, &Ptr_Glob->variant.var_1.Int_Comp);
+-} /* Proc_3 */
+-
+-
+-Proc_4 () /* without parameters */
+-/*******/
+- /* executed once */
+-{
+- Boolean Bool_Loc;
+-
+- Bool_Loc = Ch_1_Glob == 'A';
+- Bool_Glob = Bool_Loc | Bool_Glob;
+- Ch_2_Glob = 'B';
+-} /* Proc_4 */
+-
+-
+-Proc_5 () /* without parameters */
+-/*******/
+- /* executed once */
+-{
+- Ch_1_Glob = 'A';
+- Bool_Glob = false;
+-} /* Proc_5 */
+-
+-
+- /* Procedure for the assignment of structures, */
+- /* if the C compiler doesn't support this feature */
+-#ifdef NOSTRUCTASSIGN
+-memcpy (d, s, l)
+-register char *d;
+-register char *s;
+-register int l;
+-{
+- while (l--) *d++ = *s++;
+-}
+-#endif
+-
+-
+//GO.SYSIN DD dhry_1.c
+echo dhry_2.c 1>&2
+sed >dhry_2.c <<'//GO.SYSIN DD dhry_2.c' 's/^-//'
+-/*
+- ****************************************************************************
+- *
+- * "DHRYSTONE" Benchmark Program
+- * -----------------------------
+- *
+- * Version: C, Version 2.1
+- *
+- * File: dhry_2.c (part 3 of 3)
+- *
+- * Date: May 25, 1988
+- *
+- * Author: Reinhold P. Weicker
+- *
+- ****************************************************************************
+- */
+-
+-#include "dhry.h"
+-
+-#ifndef REG
+-#define REG
+- /* REG becomes defined as empty */
+- /* i.e. no register variables */
+-#endif
+-
+-extern int Int_Glob;
+-extern char Ch_1_Glob;
+-
+-
+-Proc_6 (Enum_Val_Par, Enum_Ref_Par)
+-/*********************************/
+- /* executed once */
+- /* Enum_Val_Par == Ident_3, Enum_Ref_Par becomes Ident_2 */
+-
+-Enumeration Enum_Val_Par;
+-Enumeration *Enum_Ref_Par;
+-{
+- *Enum_Ref_Par = Enum_Val_Par;
+- if (! Func_3 (Enum_Val_Par))
+- /* then, not executed */
+- *Enum_Ref_Par = Ident_4;
+- switch (Enum_Val_Par)
+- {
+- case Ident_1:
+- *Enum_Ref_Par = Ident_1;
+- break;
+- case Ident_2:
+- if (Int_Glob > 100)
+- /* then */
+- *Enum_Ref_Par = Ident_1;
+- else *Enum_Ref_Par = Ident_4;
+- break;
+- case Ident_3: /* executed */
+- *Enum_Ref_Par = Ident_2;
+- break;
+- case Ident_4: break;
+- case Ident_5:
+- *Enum_Ref_Par = Ident_3;
+- break;
+- } /* switch */
+-} /* Proc_6 */
+-
+-
+-Proc_7 (Int_1_Par_Val, Int_2_Par_Val, Int_Par_Ref)
+-/**********************************************/
+- /* executed three times */
+- /* first call: Int_1_Par_Val == 2, Int_2_Par_Val == 3, */
+- /* Int_Par_Ref becomes 7 */
+- /* second call: Int_1_Par_Val == 10, Int_2_Par_Val == 5, */
+- /* Int_Par_Ref becomes 17 */
+- /* third call: Int_1_Par_Val == 6, Int_2_Par_Val == 10, */
+- /* Int_Par_Ref becomes 18 */
+-One_Fifty Int_1_Par_Val;
+-One_Fifty Int_2_Par_Val;
+-One_Fifty *Int_Par_Ref;
+-{
+- One_Fifty Int_Loc;
+-
+- Int_Loc = Int_1_Par_Val + 2;
+- *Int_Par_Ref = Int_2_Par_Val + Int_Loc;
+-} /* Proc_7 */
+-
+-
+-Proc_8 (Arr_1_Par_Ref, Arr_2_Par_Ref, Int_1_Par_Val, Int_2_Par_Val)
+-/*********************************************************************/
+- /* executed once */
+- /* Int_Par_Val_1 == 3 */
+- /* Int_Par_Val_2 == 7 */
+-Arr_1_Dim Arr_1_Par_Ref;
+-Arr_2_Dim Arr_2_Par_Ref;
+-int Int_1_Par_Val;
+-int Int_2_Par_Val;
+-{
+- REG One_Fifty Int_Index;
+- REG One_Fifty Int_Loc;
+-
+- Int_Loc = Int_1_Par_Val + 5;
+- Arr_1_Par_Ref [Int_Loc] = Int_2_Par_Val;
+- Arr_1_Par_Ref [Int_Loc+1] = Arr_1_Par_Ref [Int_Loc];
+- Arr_1_Par_Ref [Int_Loc+30] = Int_Loc;
+- for (Int_Index = Int_Loc; Int_Index <= Int_Loc+1; ++Int_Index)
+- Arr_2_Par_Ref [Int_Loc] [Int_Index] = Int_Loc;
+- Arr_2_Par_Ref [Int_Loc] [Int_Loc-1] += 1;
+- Arr_2_Par_Ref [Int_Loc+20] [Int_Loc] = Arr_1_Par_Ref [Int_Loc];
+- Int_Glob = 5;
+-} /* Proc_8 */
+-
+-
+-Enumeration Func_1 (Ch_1_Par_Val, Ch_2_Par_Val)
+-/*************************************************/
+- /* executed three times */
+- /* first call: Ch_1_Par_Val == 'H', Ch_2_Par_Val == 'R' */
+- /* second call: Ch_1_Par_Val == 'A', Ch_2_Par_Val == 'C' */
+- /* third call: Ch_1_Par_Val == 'B', Ch_2_Par_Val == 'C' */
+-
+-Capital_Letter Ch_1_Par_Val;
+-Capital_Letter Ch_2_Par_Val;
+-{
+- Capital_Letter Ch_1_Loc;
+- Capital_Letter Ch_2_Loc;
+-
+- Ch_1_Loc = Ch_1_Par_Val;
+- Ch_2_Loc = Ch_1_Loc;
+- if (Ch_2_Loc != Ch_2_Par_Val)
+- /* then, executed */
+- return (Ident_1);
+- else /* not executed */
+- {
+- Ch_1_Glob = Ch_1_Loc;
+- return (Ident_2);
+- }
+-} /* Func_1 */
+-
+-
+-Boolean Func_2 (Str_1_Par_Ref, Str_2_Par_Ref)
+-/*************************************************/
+- /* executed once */
+- /* Str_1_Par_Ref == "DHRYSTONE PROGRAM, 1'ST STRING" */
+- /* Str_2_Par_Ref == "DHRYSTONE PROGRAM, 2'ND STRING" */
+-
+-Str_30 Str_1_Par_Ref;
+-Str_30 Str_2_Par_Ref;
+-{
+- REG One_Thirty Int_Loc;
+- Capital_Letter Ch_Loc;
+-
+- Int_Loc = 2;
+- while (Int_Loc <= 2) /* loop body executed once */
+- if (Func_1 (Str_1_Par_Ref[Int_Loc],
+- Str_2_Par_Ref[Int_Loc+1]) == Ident_1)
+- /* then, executed */
+- {
+- Ch_Loc = 'A';
+- Int_Loc += 1;
+- } /* if, while */
+- if (Ch_Loc >= 'W' && Ch_Loc < 'Z')
+- /* then, not executed */
+- Int_Loc = 7;
+- if (Ch_Loc == 'R')
+- /* then, not executed */
+- return (true);
+- else /* executed */
+- {
+- if (strcmp (Str_1_Par_Ref, Str_2_Par_Ref) > 0)
+- /* then, not executed */
+- {
+- Int_Loc += 7;
+- Int_Glob = Int_Loc;
+- return (true);
+- }
+- else /* executed */
+- return (false);
+- } /* if Ch_Loc */
+-} /* Func_2 */
+-
+-
+-Boolean Func_3 (Enum_Par_Val)
+-/***************************/
+- /* executed once */
+- /* Enum_Par_Val == Ident_3 */
+-Enumeration Enum_Par_Val;
+-{
+- Enumeration Enum_Loc;
+-
+- Enum_Loc = Enum_Par_Val;
+- if (Enum_Loc == Ident_3)
+- /* then, executed */
+- return (true);
+- else /* not executed */
+- return (false);
+-} /* Func_3 */
+-
+//GO.SYSIN DD dhry_2.c
+echo dhry_c.dif 1>&2
+sed >dhry_c.dif <<'//GO.SYSIN DD dhry_c.dif' 's/^-//'
+-7c7
+-< * Version: C, Version 2.1
+----
+-> * Version: C, Version 2.0
+-9c9
+-< * File: dhry.h (part 1 of 3)
+----
+-> * File: dhry_global.h (part 1 of 3)
+-11c11
+-< * Date: May 25, 1988
+----
+-> * Date: March 3, 1988
+-30c30
+-< * In addition, Berkeley UNIX system calls "times ()" or "time ()"
+----
+-> * In addition, UNIX system calls "times ()" or "time ()"
+-44c44
+-< * Please send results to Rick Richardson and/or Reinhold Weicker.
+----
+-> * Please send results to Reinhold Weicker and/or Rick Richardson.
+-59c59
+-< * History: This version C/2.1 has been made for two reasons:
+----
+-> * History: This version C/2.0 has been made for two reasons:
+-123,129d122
+-< * Version 2.1 is identical to version 2.0 distributed via
+-< * the UNIX network Usenet in March 1988 except that it corrects
+-< * some minor deficiencies that were found by users of version 2.0.
+-< * The only change within the measurement loop is that a
+-< * non-executed "else" part was added to the "if" statement in
+-< * Func_3, and a non-executed "else" part removed from Proc_3.
+-< *
+-165,167c158,160
+-< * -DHZ=nnn
+-< * In Berkeley UNIX, the function "times" returns process
+-< * time in 1/HZ seconds, with HZ = 60 for most systems.
+----
+-> * -DHZ=nnn (default: 60)
+-> * The function "times" returns process times in
+-> * 1/HZ seconds, with HZ = 60 for most systems.
+-169c162
+-< * A VALUE.
+----
+-> * THE DEFAULT VALUE.
+-176,178c169,171
+-< * - dhry.h (this file, containing global definitions and comments)
+-< * - dhry_1.c (containing the code corresponding to Ada package Pack_1)
+-< * - dhry_2.c (containing the code corresponding to Ada package Pack_2)
+----
+-> * - dhry_global.h (this file, containing global definitions and comments)
+-> * - dhry_pack_1.c (containing the code corresponding to Ada package Pack_1)
+-> * - dhry_pack_2.c (containing the code corresponding to Ada package Pack_2)
+-350a344
+-> #ifndef TIMES
+-353,354c347,354
+-< /* Use times(2) time function unless */
+-< /* explicitly defined otherwise */
+----
+-> #endif
+-> /* Use "times" function for measurement */
+-> /* unless explicitly defined otherwise */
+-> #ifndef HZ
+-> #define HZ 60
+-> #endif
+-> /* Use HZ = 60 for "times" function */
+-> /* unless explicitly defined otherwise */
+-363c363
+-< /* Berkeley UNIX C returns process times in seconds/HZ */
+----
+-> /* UNIX C returns process times in seconds/HZ */
+-7c7
+-< * Version: C, Version 2.1
+----
+-> * Version: C, Version 2.0
+-9c9
+-< * File: dhry_1.c (part 2 of 3)
+----
+-> * File: dhry_pack_1.c (part 2 of 3)
+-11c11
+-< * Date: May 25, 1988
+----
+-> * Date: March 3, 1988
+-18c18
+-< #include "dhry.h"
+----
+-> #include "dhry_global.h"
+-50,51d49
+-< #define Too_Small_Time 120
+-< /* Measurements should last at least about 2 seconds */
+-55a54,55
+-> #endif
+->
+-58d57
+-< #endif
+-73a73
+->
+-84a85
+->
+-99,100c100,102
+-< /* Was missing in published program. Without this statement, */
+-< /* Arr_2_Glob [8][7] would have an undefined value. */
+----
+-> /* Was missing in published program. Without this */
+-> /* initialization, Arr_2_Glob [8][7] would have an */
+-> /* undefined value. */
+-105c107
+-< printf ("Dhrystone Benchmark, Version 2.1 (Language: C)\n");
+----
+-> printf ("Dhrystone Benchmark, Version 2.0 (Language: C)\n");
+-281c283
+-< /******************/
+----
+-> /**********************/
+-338c340
+-< /******************/
+----
+-> /**********************/
+-347a350,351
+-> else /* not executed */
+-> Int_Glob = 100;
+-349a354
+->
+-7c7
+-< * Version: C, Version 2.1
+----
+-> * Version: C, Version 2.0
+-9c9
+-< * File: dhry_2.c (part 3 of 3)
+----
+-> * File: dhry_pack_2.c (part 3 of 3)
+-11c11
+-< * Date: May 25, 1988
+----
+-> * Date: March 3, 1988
+-18c18
+-< #include "dhry.h"
+----
+-> #include "dhry_global.h"
+-189,190d188
+-< else /* not executed */
+-< return (false);
+//GO.SYSIN DD dhry_c.dif
+echo submit.frm 1>&2
+sed >submit.frm <<'//GO.SYSIN DD submit.frm' 's/^-//'
+-DHRYSTONE 2.1 BENCHMARK REPORTING FORM
+-MANUF:
+-MODEL:
+-PROC:
+-CLOCK:
+-OS:
+-OVERSION:
+-COMPILER:
+-CVERSION:
+-OPTIONS:
+-NOREG:
+-REG:
+-NOTES:
+-DATE:
+-SUBMITTER:
+-CODESIZE:
+-MAILTO: uunet!pcrat!dry2
+//GO.SYSIN DD submit.frm
diff --git a/zpu/roadshow/roadshow/dhrystone/dhry.h b/zpu/roadshow/roadshow/dhrystone/dhry.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..211c2e2
--- /dev/null
+++ b/zpu/roadshow/roadshow/dhrystone/dhry.h
@@ -0,0 +1,423 @@
+/*
+ ****************************************************************************
+ *
+ * "DHRYSTONE" Benchmark Program
+ * -----------------------------
+ *
+ * Version: C, Version 2.1
+ *
+ * File: dhry.h (part 1 of 3)
+ *
+ * Date: May 25, 1988
+ *
+ * Author: Reinhold P. Weicker
+ * Siemens AG, AUT E 51
+ * Postfach 3220
+ * 8520 Erlangen
+ * Germany (West)
+ * Phone: [+49]-9131-7-20330
+ * (8-17 Central European Time)
+ * Usenet: ..!mcsun!unido!estevax!weicker
+ *
+ * Original Version (in Ada) published in
+ * "Communications of the ACM" vol. 27., no. 10 (Oct. 1984),
+ * pp. 1013 - 1030, together with the statistics
+ * on which the distribution of statements etc. is based.
+ *
+ * In this C version, the following C library functions are used:
+ * - strcpy, strcmp (inside the measurement loop)
+ * - printf, scanf (outside the measurement loop)
+ * In addition, Berkeley UNIX system calls "times ()" or "time ()"
+ * are used for execution time measurement. For measurements
+ * on other systems, these calls have to be changed.
+ *
+ * Collection of Results:
+ * Reinhold Weicker (address see above) and
+ *
+ * Rick Richardson
+ * PC Research. Inc.
+ * 94 Apple Orchard Drive
+ * Tinton Falls, NJ 07724
+ * Phone: (201) 389-8963 (9-17 EST)
+ * Usenet: ...!uunet!pcrat!rick
+ *
+ * Please send results to Rick Richardson and/or Reinhold Weicker.
+ * Complete information should be given on hardware and software used.
+ * Hardware information includes: Machine type, CPU, type and size
+ * of caches; for microprocessors: clock frequency, memory speed
+ * (number of wait states).
+ * Software information includes: Compiler (and runtime library)
+ * manufacturer and version, compilation switches, OS version.
+ * The Operating System version may give an indication about the
+ * compiler; Dhrystone itself performs no OS calls in the measurement loop.
+ *
+ * The complete output generated by the program should be mailed
+ * such that at least some checks for correctness can be made.
+ *
+ ***************************************************************************
+ *
+ * History: This version C/2.1 has been made for two reasons:
+ *
+ * 1) There is an obvious need for a common C version of
+ * Dhrystone, since C is at present the most popular system
+ * programming language for the class of processors
+ * (microcomputers, minicomputers) where Dhrystone is used most.
+ * There should be, as far as possible, only one C version of
+ * Dhrystone such that results can be compared without
+ * restrictions. In the past, the C versions distributed
+ * by Rick Richardson (Version 1.1) and by Reinhold Weicker
+ * had small (though not significant) differences.
+ *
+ * 2) As far as it is possible without changes to the Dhrystone
+ * statistics, optimizing compilers should be prevented from
+ * removing significant statements.
+ *
+ * This C version has been developed in cooperation with
+ * Rick Richardson (Tinton Falls, NJ), it incorporates many
+ * ideas from the "Version 1.1" distributed previously by
+ * him over the UNIX network Usenet.
+ * I also thank Chaim Benedelac (National Semiconductor),
+ * David Ditzel (SUN), Earl Killian and John Mashey (MIPS),
+ * Alan Smith and Rafael Saavedra-Barrera (UC at Berkeley)
+ * for their help with comments on earlier versions of the
+ * benchmark.
+ *
+ * Changes: In the initialization part, this version follows mostly
+ * Rick Richardson's version distributed via Usenet, not the
+ * version distributed earlier via floppy disk by Reinhold Weicker.
+ * As a concession to older compilers, names have been made
+ * unique within the first 8 characters.
+ * Inside the measurement loop, this version follows the
+ * version previously distributed by Reinhold Weicker.
+ *
+ * At several places in the benchmark, code has been added,
+ * but within the measurement loop only in branches that
+ * are not executed. The intention is that optimizing compilers
+ * should be prevented from moving code out of the measurement
+ * loop, or from removing code altogether. Since the statements
+ * that are executed within the measurement loop have NOT been
+ * changed, the numbers defining the "Dhrystone distribution"
+ * (distribution of statements, operand types and locality)
+ * still hold. Except for sophisticated optimizing compilers,
+ * execution times for this version should be the same as
+ * for previous versions.
+ *
+ * Since it has proven difficult to subtract the time for the
+ * measurement loop overhead in a correct way, the loop check
+ * has been made a part of the benchmark. This does have
+ * an impact - though a very minor one - on the distribution
+ * statistics which have been updated for this version.
+ *
+ * All changes within the measurement loop are described
+ * and discussed in the companion paper "Rationale for
+ * Dhrystone version 2".
+ *
+ * Because of the self-imposed limitation that the order and
+ * distribution of the executed statements should not be
+ * changed, there are still cases where optimizing compilers
+ * may not generate code for some statements. To a certain
+ * degree, this is unavoidable for small synthetic benchmarks.
+ * Users of the benchmark are advised to check code listings
+ * whether code is generated for all statements of Dhrystone.
+ *
+ * Version 2.1 is identical to version 2.0 distributed via
+ * the UNIX network Usenet in March 1988 except that it corrects
+ * some minor deficiencies that were found by users of version 2.0.
+ * The only change within the measurement loop is that a
+ * non-executed "else" part was added to the "if" statement in
+ * Func_3, and a non-executed "else" part removed from Proc_3.
+ *
+ ***************************************************************************
+ *
+ * Defines: The following "Defines" are possible:
+ * -DREG=register (default: Not defined)
+ * As an approximation to what an average C programmer
+ * might do, the "register" storage class is applied
+ * (if enabled by -DREG=register)
+ * - for local variables, if they are used (dynamically)
+ * five or more times
+ * - for parameters if they are used (dynamically)
+ * six or more times
+ * Note that an optimal "register" strategy is
+ * compiler-dependent, and that "register" declarations
+ * do not necessarily lead to faster execution.
+ * -DNOSTRUCTASSIGN (default: Not defined)
+ * Define if the C compiler does not support
+ * assignment of structures.
+ * -DNOENUMS (default: Not defined)
+ * Define if the C compiler does not support
+ * enumeration types.
+ * -DTIMES (default)
+ * -DTIME
+ * The "times" function of UNIX (returning process times)
+ * or the "time" function (returning wallclock time)
+ * is used for measurement.
+ * For single user machines, "time ()" is adequate. For
+ * multi-user machines where you cannot get single-user
+ * access, use the "times ()" function. If you have
+ * neither, use a stopwatch in the dead of night.
+ * "printf"s are provided marking the points "Start Timer"
+ * and "Stop Timer". DO NOT use the UNIX "time(1)"
+ * command, as this will measure the total time to
+ * run this program, which will (erroneously) include
+ * the time to allocate storage (malloc) and to perform
+ * the initialization.
+ * -DHZ=nnn
+ * In Berkeley UNIX, the function "times" returns process
+ * time in 1/HZ seconds, with HZ = 60 for most systems.
+ * CHECK YOUR SYSTEM DESCRIPTION BEFORE YOU JUST APPLY
+ * A VALUE.
+ *
+ ***************************************************************************
+ *
+ * Compilation model and measurement (IMPORTANT):
+ *
+ * This C version of Dhrystone consists of three files:
+ * - dhry.h (this file, containing global definitions and comments)
+ * - dhry_1.c (containing the code corresponding to Ada package Pack_1)
+ * - dhry_2.c (containing the code corresponding to Ada package Pack_2)
+ *
+ * The following "ground rules" apply for measurements:
+ * - Separate compilation
+ * - No procedure merging
+ * - Otherwise, compiler optimizations are allowed but should be indicated
+ * - Default results are those without register declarations
+ * See the companion paper "Rationale for Dhrystone Version 2" for a more
+ * detailed discussion of these ground rules.
+ *
+ * For 16-Bit processors (e.g. 80186, 80286), times for all compilation
+ * models ("small", "medium", "large" etc.) should be given if possible,
+ * together with a definition of these models for the compiler system used.
+ *
+ **************************************************************************
+ *
+ * Dhrystone (C version) statistics:
+ *
+ * [Comment from the first distribution, updated for version 2.
+ * Note that because of language differences, the numbers are slightly
+ * different from the Ada version.]
+ *
+ * The following program contains statements of a high level programming
+ * language (here: C) in a distribution considered representative:
+ *
+ * assignments 52 (51.0 %)
+ * control statements 33 (32.4 %)
+ * procedure, function calls 17 (16.7 %)
+ *
+ * 103 statements are dynamically executed. The program is balanced with
+ * respect to the three aspects:
+ *
+ * - statement type
+ * - operand type
+ * - operand locality
+ * operand global, local, parameter, or constant.
+ *
+ * The combination of these three aspects is balanced only approximately.
+ *
+ * 1. Statement Type:
+ * ----------------- number
+ *
+ * V1 = V2 9
+ * (incl. V1 = F(..)
+ * V = Constant 12
+ * Assignment, 7
+ * with array element
+ * Assignment, 6
+ * with record component
+ * --
+ * 34 34
+ *
+ * X = Y +|-|"&&"|"|" Z 5
+ * X = Y +|-|"==" Constant 6
+ * X = X +|- 1 3
+ * X = Y *|/ Z 2
+ * X = Expression, 1
+ * two operators
+ * X = Expression, 1
+ * three operators
+ * --
+ * 18 18
+ *
+ * if .... 14
+ * with "else" 7
+ * without "else" 7
+ * executed 3
+ * not executed 4
+ * for ... 7 | counted every time
+ * while ... 4 | the loop condition
+ * do ... while 1 | is evaluated
+ * switch ... 1
+ * break 1
+ * declaration with 1
+ * initialization
+ * --
+ * 34 34
+ *
+ * P (...) procedure call 11
+ * user procedure 10
+ * library procedure 1
+ * X = F (...)
+ * function call 6
+ * user function 5
+ * library function 1
+ * --
+ * 17 17
+ * ---
+ * 103
+ *
+ * The average number of parameters in procedure or function calls
+ * is 1.82 (not counting the function values as implicit parameters).
+ *
+ *
+ * 2. Operators
+ * ------------
+ * number approximate
+ * percentage
+ *
+ * Arithmetic 32 50.8
+ *
+ * + 21 33.3
+ * - 7 11.1
+ * * 3 4.8
+ * / (int div) 1 1.6
+ *
+ * Comparison 27 42.8
+ *
+ * == 9 14.3
+ * /= 4 6.3
+ * > 1 1.6
+ * < 3 4.8
+ * >= 1 1.6
+ * <= 9 14.3
+ *
+ * Logic 4 6.3
+ *
+ * && (AND-THEN) 1 1.6
+ * | (OR) 1 1.6
+ * ! (NOT) 2 3.2
+ *
+ * -- -----
+ * 63 100.1
+ *
+ *
+ * 3. Operand Type (counted once per operand reference):
+ * ---------------
+ * number approximate
+ * percentage
+ *
+ * Integer 175 72.3 %
+ * Character 45 18.6 %
+ * Pointer 12 5.0 %
+ * String30 6 2.5 %
+ * Array 2 0.8 %
+ * Record 2 0.8 %
+ * --- -------
+ * 242 100.0 %
+ *
+ * When there is an access path leading to the final operand (e.g. a record
+ * component), only the final data type on the access path is counted.
+ *
+ *
+ * 4. Operand Locality:
+ * -------------------
+ * number approximate
+ * percentage
+ *
+ * local variable 114 47.1 %
+ * global variable 22 9.1 %
+ * parameter 45 18.6 %
+ * value 23 9.5 %
+ * reference 22 9.1 %
+ * function result 6 2.5 %
+ * constant 55 22.7 %
+ * --- -------
+ * 242 100.0 %
+ *
+ *
+ * The program does not compute anything meaningful, but it is syntactically
+ * and semantically correct. All variables have a value assigned to them
+ * before they are used as a source operand.
+ *
+ * There has been no explicit effort to account for the effects of a
+ * cache, or to balance the use of long or short displacements for code or
+ * data.
+ *
+ ***************************************************************************
+ */
+
+/* Compiler and system dependent definitions: */
+
+#ifndef TIME
+#define TIMES
+#endif
+ /* Use times(2) time function unless */
+ /* explicitly defined otherwise */
+
+#ifdef TIMES
+#include <sys/types.h>
+#include <sys/times.h>
+ /* for "times" */
+#endif
+
+#define Mic_secs_Per_Second 1000000
+ /* Berkeley UNIX C returns process times in seconds/HZ */
+
+#ifdef NOSTRUCTASSIGN
+#define structassign(d, s) memcpy(&(d), &(s), sizeof(d))
+#else
+#define structassign(d, s) d = s
+#endif
+
+#ifdef NOENUM
+#define Ident_1 0
+#define Ident_2 1
+#define Ident_3 2
+#define Ident_4 3
+#define Ident_5 4
+ typedef int Enumeration;
+#else
+ typedef enum {Ident_1, Ident_2, Ident_3, Ident_4, Ident_5}
+ Enumeration;
+#endif
+ /* for boolean and enumeration types in Ada, Pascal */
+
+/* General definitions: */
+
+#include <stdio.h>
+ /* for strcpy, strcmp */
+
+#define Null 0
+ /* Value of a Null pointer */
+#define true 1
+#define false 0
+
+typedef int One_Thirty;
+typedef int One_Fifty;
+typedef char Capital_Letter;
+typedef int Boolean;
+typedef char Str_30 [31];
+typedef int Arr_1_Dim [50];
+typedef int Arr_2_Dim [50] [50];
+
+typedef struct record
+ {
+ struct record *Ptr_Comp;
+ Enumeration Discr;
+ union {
+ struct {
+ Enumeration Enum_Comp;
+ int Int_Comp;
+ char Str_Comp [31];
+ } var_1;
+ struct {
+ Enumeration E_Comp_2;
+ char Str_2_Comp [31];
+ } var_2;
+ struct {
+ char Ch_1_Comp;
+ char Ch_2_Comp;
+ } var_3;
+ } variant;
+ } Rec_Type, *Rec_Pointer;
+
+
diff --git a/zpu/roadshow/roadshow/dhrystone/dhry_1.c b/zpu/roadshow/roadshow/dhrystone/dhry_1.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..08a29b9
--- /dev/null
+++ b/zpu/roadshow/roadshow/dhrystone/dhry_1.c
@@ -0,0 +1,533 @@
+/*
+ ****************************************************************************
+ *
+ * "DHRYSTONE" Benchmark Program
+ * -----------------------------
+ *
+ * Version: C, Version 2.1
+ *
+ * File: dhry_1.c (part 2 of 3)
+ *
+ * Date: May 25, 1988
+ *
+ * Author: Reinhold P. Weicker
+ *
+ ****************************************************************************
+ */
+
+#include "dhry.h"
+#include <stdarg.h>
+
+static int
+_cvt(int val, char *buf, int radix, char *digits)
+{
+ char temp[80];
+ char *cp = temp;
+ int length = 0;
+
+ if (val == 0) {
+ /* Special case */
+ *cp++ = '0';
+ } else {
+ while (val) {
+ *cp++ = digits[val % radix];
+ val /= radix;
+ }
+ }
+ while (cp != temp) {
+ *buf++ = *--cp;
+ length++;
+ }
+ *buf = '\0';
+ return (length);
+}
+
+#define is_digit(c) ((c >= '0') && (c <= '9'))
+
+
+#ifndef TINY
+static int
+_vprintf(void (*putc)(char c, void **param), void **param, const char *fmt, va_list ap)
+{
+ char buf[sizeof(long long)*8];
+ char c, sign, *cp=buf;
+ int left_prec, right_prec, zero_fill, pad, pad_on_right,
+ i, islong, islonglong;
+ long long val = 0;
+ int res = 0, length = 0;
+
+ while ((c = *fmt++) != '\0') {
+ if (c == '%') {
+ c = *fmt++;
+ left_prec = right_prec = pad_on_right = islong = islonglong = 0;
+ sign = '\0';
+ // Fetch value [numeric descriptors only]
+ switch (c) {
+ case 'd':
+ val = (long long)va_arg(ap, int);
+ if ((c == 'd') || (c == 'D')) {
+ if (val < 0) {
+ sign = '-';
+ val = -val;
+ }
+ } else {
+ // Mask to unsigned, sized quantity
+ if (islong) {
+ val &= ((long long)1 << (sizeof(long) * 8)) - 1;
+ } else{
+ val &= ((long long)1 << (sizeof(int) * 8)) - 1;
+ }
+ }
+ break;
+ default:
+ break;
+ }
+ // Process output
+ switch (c) {
+ case 'd':
+ switch (c) {
+ case 'd':
+ length = _cvt(val, buf, 10, "0123456789");
+ break;
+ }
+ cp = buf;
+ break;
+ case 's':
+ cp = va_arg(ap, char *);
+ length = 0;
+ while (cp[length] != '\0') length++;
+ break;
+ case 'c':
+ c = va_arg(ap, int /*char*/);
+ (*putc)(c, param);
+ res++;
+ continue;
+ default:
+ (*putc)('%', param);
+ (*putc)(c, param);
+ res += 2;
+ continue;
+ }
+ while (length-- > 0) {
+ c = *cp++;
+ (*putc)(c, param);
+ res++;
+ }
+ } else {
+ (*putc)(c, param);
+ res++;
+ }
+ }
+ return (res);
+}
+#endif
+
+// Default wrapper function used by diag_printf
+static void
+_diag_write_char(char c, void **param)
+{
+ if (c=='\n')
+ {
+ outbyte('\r');
+ }
+ outbyte(c);
+}
+
+int
+small_printf(const char *fmt, ...)
+{
+#ifndef TINY
+ va_list ap;
+ int ret;
+
+ va_start(ap, fmt);
+ ret = _vprintf(_diag_write_char, (void **)0, fmt, ap);
+ va_end(ap);
+ return (ret);
+#else
+ return 0;
+#endif
+}
+
+
+
+
+/* Global Variables: */
+
+Rec_Pointer Ptr_Glob,
+ Next_Ptr_Glob;
+int Int_Glob;
+Boolean Bool_Glob;
+char Ch_1_Glob,
+ Ch_2_Glob;
+int Arr_1_Glob [50];
+int Arr_2_Glob [50] [50];
+
+Enumeration Func_1 ();
+ /* forward declaration necessary since Enumeration may not simply be int */
+
+#ifndef REG
+ Boolean Reg = false;
+#define REG
+ /* REG becomes defined as empty */
+ /* i.e. no register variables */
+#else
+ Boolean Reg = true;
+#endif
+
+/* variables for time measurement: */
+
+#ifdef TIMES
+struct tms time_info;
+ /* see library function "times" */
+#define Too_Small_Time 120
+ /* Measurements should last at least about 2 seconds */
+#endif
+#ifdef TIME
+extern long time();
+ /* see library function "time" */
+#define Too_Small_Time 2
+ /* Measurements should last at least 2 seconds */
+#endif
+
+long long Begin_Time,
+ End_Time,
+ User_Time;
+long long Microseconds,
+ Dhrystones_Per_Second,
+ Vax_Mips;
+
+/* end of variables for time measurement */
+
+int Number_Of_Runs = 50000;
+
+extern long long _readMicroseconds();
+
+
+int main ()
+/*****/
+
+ /* main program, corresponds to procedures */
+ /* Main and Proc_0 in the Ada version */
+{
+ One_Fifty Int_1_Loc;
+ REG One_Fifty Int_2_Loc;
+ One_Fifty Int_3_Loc;
+ REG char Ch_Index;
+ Enumeration Enum_Loc;
+ Str_30 Str_1_Loc;
+ Str_30 Str_2_Loc;
+ REG int Run_Index;
+
+ /* Initializations */
+
+ Next_Ptr_Glob = (Rec_Pointer) malloc (sizeof (Rec_Type));
+ Ptr_Glob = (Rec_Pointer) malloc (sizeof (Rec_Type));
+
+ Ptr_Glob->Ptr_Comp = Next_Ptr_Glob;
+ Ptr_Glob->Discr = Ident_1;
+ Ptr_Glob->variant.var_1.Enum_Comp = Ident_3;
+ Ptr_Glob->variant.var_1.Int_Comp = 40;
+ strcpy (Ptr_Glob->variant.var_1.Str_Comp,
+ "DHRYSTONE PROGRAM, SOME STRING");
+ strcpy (Str_1_Loc, "DHRYSTONE PROGRAM, 1'ST STRING");
+
+ Arr_2_Glob [8][7] = 10;
+ /* Was missing in published program. Without this statement, */
+ /* Arr_2_Glob [8][7] would have an undefined value. */
+ /* Warning: With 16-Bit processors and Number_Of_Runs > 32000, */
+ /* overflow may occur for this array element. */
+ small_printf ("\n");
+ small_printf ("Dhrystone Benchmark, Version 2.1 (Language: C)\n");
+ small_printf ("\n");
+ if (Reg)
+ {
+ small_printf ("Program compiled with 'register' attribute\n");
+ small_printf ("\n");
+ }
+ else
+ {
+ small_printf ("Program compiled without 'register' attribute\n");
+ small_printf ("\n");
+ }
+ Number_Of_Runs;
+
+ small_printf ("Execution starts, %d runs through Dhrystone\n", Number_Of_Runs);
+
+ /***************/
+ /* Start timer */
+ /***************/
+
+#if 0
+#ifdef TIMES
+ times (&time_info);
+ Begin_Time = (long) time_info.tms_utime;
+#endif
+#ifdef TIME
+ Begin_Time = time ( (long *) 0);
+#endif
+#else
+ Begin_Time = _readMicroseconds();
+#endif
+ for (Run_Index = 1; Run_Index <= Number_Of_Runs; ++Run_Index)
+ {
+
+ Proc_5();
+ Proc_4();
+ /* Ch_1_Glob == 'A', Ch_2_Glob == 'B', Bool_Glob == true */
+ Int_1_Loc = 2;
+ Int_2_Loc = 3;
+ strcpy (Str_2_Loc, "DHRYSTONE PROGRAM, 2'ND STRING");
+ Enum_Loc = Ident_2;
+ Bool_Glob = ! Func_2 (Str_1_Loc, Str_2_Loc);
+ /* Bool_Glob == 1 */
+ while (Int_1_Loc < Int_2_Loc) /* loop body executed once */
+ {
+ Int_3_Loc = 5 * Int_1_Loc - Int_2_Loc;
+ /* Int_3_Loc == 7 */
+ Proc_7 (Int_1_Loc, Int_2_Loc, &Int_3_Loc);
+ /* Int_3_Loc == 7 */
+ Int_1_Loc += 1;
+ } /* while */
+ /* Int_1_Loc == 3, Int_2_Loc == 3, Int_3_Loc == 7 */
+ Proc_8 (Arr_1_Glob, Arr_2_Glob, Int_1_Loc, Int_3_Loc);
+ /* Int_Glob == 5 */
+ Proc_1 (Ptr_Glob);
+ for (Ch_Index = 'A'; Ch_Index <= Ch_2_Glob; ++Ch_Index)
+ /* loop body executed twice */
+ {
+ if (Enum_Loc == Func_1 (Ch_Index, 'C'))
+ /* then, not executed */
+ {
+ Proc_6 (Ident_1, &Enum_Loc);
+ strcpy (Str_2_Loc, "DHRYSTONE PROGRAM, 3'RD STRING");
+ Int_2_Loc = Run_Index;
+ Int_Glob = Run_Index;
+ }
+ }
+ /* Int_1_Loc == 3, Int_2_Loc == 3, Int_3_Loc == 7 */
+ Int_2_Loc = Int_2_Loc * Int_1_Loc;
+ Int_1_Loc = Int_2_Loc / Int_3_Loc;
+ Int_2_Loc = 7 * (Int_2_Loc - Int_3_Loc) - Int_1_Loc;
+ /* Int_1_Loc == 1, Int_2_Loc == 13, Int_3_Loc == 7 */
+ Proc_2 (&Int_1_Loc);
+ /* Int_1_Loc == 5 */
+
+ } /* loop "for Run_Index" */
+
+ /**************/
+ /* Stop timer */
+ /**************/
+
+#if 0
+#ifdef TIMES
+ times (&time_info);
+ End_Time = (long) time_info.tms_utime;
+#endif
+#ifdef TIME
+ End_Time = time ( (long *) 0);
+#endif
+#else
+ End_Time = _readMicroseconds();
+#endif
+
+ small_printf ("Execution ends\n");
+ small_printf ("\n");
+ small_printf ("Final values of the variables used in the benchmark:\n");
+ small_printf ("\n");
+ small_printf ("Int_Glob: %d\n", Int_Glob);
+ small_printf (" should be: %d\n", 5);
+ small_printf ("Bool_Glob: %d\n", Bool_Glob);
+ small_printf (" should be: %d\n", 1);
+ small_printf ("Ch_1_Glob: %c\n", Ch_1_Glob);
+ small_printf (" should be: %c\n", 'A');
+ small_printf ("Ch_2_Glob: %c\n", Ch_2_Glob);
+ small_printf (" should be: %c\n", 'B');
+ small_printf ("Arr_1_Glob[8]: %d\n", Arr_1_Glob[8]);
+ small_printf (" should be: %d\n", 7);
+ small_printf ("Arr_2_Glob[8][7]: %d\n", Arr_2_Glob[8][7]);
+ small_printf (" should be: Number_Of_Runs + 10\n");
+ small_printf ("Ptr_Glob->\n");
+ small_printf (" Ptr_Comp: %d\n", (int) Ptr_Glob->Ptr_Comp);
+ small_printf (" should be: (implementation-dependent)\n");
+ small_printf (" Discr: %d\n", Ptr_Glob->Discr);
+ small_printf (" should be: %d\n", 0);
+ small_printf (" Enum_Comp: %d\n", Ptr_Glob->variant.var_1.Enum_Comp);
+ small_printf (" should be: %d\n", 2);
+ small_printf (" Int_Comp: %d\n", Ptr_Glob->variant.var_1.Int_Comp);
+ small_printf (" should be: %d\n", 17);
+ small_printf (" Str_Comp: %s\n", Ptr_Glob->variant.var_1.Str_Comp);
+ small_printf (" should be: DHRYSTONE PROGRAM, SOME STRING\n");
+ small_printf ("Next_Ptr_Glob->\n");
+ small_printf (" Ptr_Comp: %d\n", (int) Next_Ptr_Glob->Ptr_Comp);
+ small_printf (" should be: (implementation-dependent), same as above\n");
+ small_printf (" Discr: %d\n", Next_Ptr_Glob->Discr);
+ small_printf (" should be: %d\n", 0);
+ small_printf (" Enum_Comp: %d\n", Next_Ptr_Glob->variant.var_1.Enum_Comp);
+ small_printf (" should be: %d\n", 1);
+ small_printf (" Int_Comp: %d\n", Next_Ptr_Glob->variant.var_1.Int_Comp);
+ small_printf (" should be: %d\n", 18);
+ small_printf (" Str_Comp: %s\n",
+ Next_Ptr_Glob->variant.var_1.Str_Comp);
+ small_printf (" should be: DHRYSTONE PROGRAM, SOME STRING\n");
+ small_printf ("Int_1_Loc: %d\n", Int_1_Loc);
+ small_printf (" should be: %d\n", 5);
+ small_printf ("Int_2_Loc: %d\n", Int_2_Loc);
+ small_printf (" should be: %d\n", 13);
+ small_printf ("Int_3_Loc: %d\n", Int_3_Loc);
+ small_printf (" should be: %d\n", 7);
+ small_printf ("Enum_Loc: %d\n", Enum_Loc);
+ small_printf (" should be: %d\n", 1);
+ small_printf ("Str_1_Loc: %s\n", Str_1_Loc);
+ small_printf (" should be: DHRYSTONE PROGRAM, 1'ST STRING\n");
+ small_printf ("Str_2_Loc: %s\n", Str_2_Loc);
+ small_printf (" should be: DHRYSTONE PROGRAM, 2'ND STRING\n");
+ small_printf ("\n");
+
+ User_Time = End_Time - Begin_Time;
+ small_printf ("User time: %d\n", (int)User_Time);
+
+ if (User_Time < Too_Small_Time)
+ {
+ small_printf ("Measured time too small to obtain meaningful results\n");
+ small_printf ("Please increase number of runs\n");
+ small_printf ("\n");
+ }
+/* else */
+ {
+#if 0
+#ifdef TIME
+ Microseconds = (User_Time * Mic_secs_Per_Second )
+ / Number_Of_Runs;
+ Dhrystones_Per_Second = Number_Of_Runs / User_Time;
+ Vax_Mips = (Number_Of_Runs*1000) / (1757*User_Time);
+#else
+ Microseconds = (float) User_Time * Mic_secs_Per_Second
+ / ((float) HZ * ((float) Number_Of_Runs));
+ Dhrystones_Per_Second = ((float) HZ * (float) Number_Of_Runs)
+ / (float) User_Time;
+ Vax_Mips = Dhrystones_Per_Second / 1757.0;
+#endif
+#else
+ Microseconds = User_Time / Number_Of_Runs;
+ Dhrystones_Per_Second = ((long long)Number_Of_Runs*1000000) / User_Time;
+ Vax_Mips = (((long long)Number_Of_Runs)*1000000000) / (1757*User_Time);
+#endif
+ small_printf ("Microseconds for one run through Dhrystone: ");
+ small_printf ("%d \n", (int)Microseconds);
+ small_printf ("Dhrystones per Second: ");
+ small_printf ("%d \n", (int)Dhrystones_Per_Second);
+ small_printf ("VAX MIPS rating * 1000 = %d \n",(int)Vax_Mips);
+ small_printf ("\n");
+ }
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+
+Proc_1 (Ptr_Val_Par)
+/******************/
+
+REG Rec_Pointer Ptr_Val_Par;
+ /* executed once */
+{
+ REG Rec_Pointer Next_Record = Ptr_Val_Par->Ptr_Comp;
+ /* == Ptr_Glob_Next */
+ /* Local variable, initialized with Ptr_Val_Par->Ptr_Comp, */
+ /* corresponds to "rename" in Ada, "with" in Pascal */
+
+ structassign (*Ptr_Val_Par->Ptr_Comp, *Ptr_Glob);
+ Ptr_Val_Par->variant.var_1.Int_Comp = 5;
+ Next_Record->variant.var_1.Int_Comp
+ = Ptr_Val_Par->variant.var_1.Int_Comp;
+ Next_Record->Ptr_Comp = Ptr_Val_Par->Ptr_Comp;
+ Proc_3 (&Next_Record->Ptr_Comp);
+ /* Ptr_Val_Par->Ptr_Comp->Ptr_Comp
+ == Ptr_Glob->Ptr_Comp */
+ if (Next_Record->Discr == Ident_1)
+ /* then, executed */
+ {
+ Next_Record->variant.var_1.Int_Comp = 6;
+ Proc_6 (Ptr_Val_Par->variant.var_1.Enum_Comp,
+ &Next_Record->variant.var_1.Enum_Comp);
+ Next_Record->Ptr_Comp = Ptr_Glob->Ptr_Comp;
+ Proc_7 (Next_Record->variant.var_1.Int_Comp, 10,
+ &Next_Record->variant.var_1.Int_Comp);
+ }
+ else /* not executed */
+ structassign (*Ptr_Val_Par, *Ptr_Val_Par->Ptr_Comp);
+} /* Proc_1 */
+
+
+Proc_2 (Int_Par_Ref)
+/******************/
+ /* executed once */
+ /* *Int_Par_Ref == 1, becomes 4 */
+
+One_Fifty *Int_Par_Ref;
+{
+ One_Fifty Int_Loc;
+ Enumeration Enum_Loc;
+
+ Int_Loc = *Int_Par_Ref + 10;
+ do /* executed once */
+ if (Ch_1_Glob == 'A')
+ /* then, executed */
+ {
+ Int_Loc -= 1;
+ *Int_Par_Ref = Int_Loc - Int_Glob;
+ Enum_Loc = Ident_1;
+ } /* if */
+ while (Enum_Loc != Ident_1); /* true */
+} /* Proc_2 */
+
+
+Proc_3 (Ptr_Ref_Par)
+/******************/
+ /* executed once */
+ /* Ptr_Ref_Par becomes Ptr_Glob */
+
+Rec_Pointer *Ptr_Ref_Par;
+
+{
+ if (Ptr_Glob != Null)
+ /* then, executed */
+ *Ptr_Ref_Par = Ptr_Glob->Ptr_Comp;
+ Proc_7 (10, Int_Glob, &Ptr_Glob->variant.var_1.Int_Comp);
+} /* Proc_3 */
+
+
+Proc_4 () /* without parameters */
+/*******/
+ /* executed once */
+{
+ Boolean Bool_Loc;
+
+ Bool_Loc = Ch_1_Glob == 'A';
+ Bool_Glob = Bool_Loc | Bool_Glob;
+ Ch_2_Glob = 'B';
+} /* Proc_4 */
+
+
+Proc_5 () /* without parameters */
+/*******/
+ /* executed once */
+{
+ Ch_1_Glob = 'A';
+ Bool_Glob = false;
+} /* Proc_5 */
+
+
+ /* Procedure for the assignment of structures, */
+ /* if the C compiler doesn't support this feature */
+#ifdef NOSTRUCTASSIGN
+memcpy (d, s, l)
+register char *d;
+register char *s;
+register int l;
+{
+ while (l--) *d++ = *s++;
+}
+#endif
+
+
diff --git a/zpu/roadshow/roadshow/dhrystone/dhry_2.c b/zpu/roadshow/roadshow/dhrystone/dhry_2.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..ed0e5b7
--- /dev/null
+++ b/zpu/roadshow/roadshow/dhrystone/dhry_2.c
@@ -0,0 +1,192 @@
+/*
+ ****************************************************************************
+ *
+ * "DHRYSTONE" Benchmark Program
+ * -----------------------------
+ *
+ * Version: C, Version 2.1
+ *
+ * File: dhry_2.c (part 3 of 3)
+ *
+ * Date: May 25, 1988
+ *
+ * Author: Reinhold P. Weicker
+ *
+ ****************************************************************************
+ */
+
+#include "dhry.h"
+
+#ifndef REG
+#define REG
+ /* REG becomes defined as empty */
+ /* i.e. no register variables */
+#endif
+
+extern int Int_Glob;
+extern char Ch_1_Glob;
+
+
+Proc_6 (Enum_Val_Par, Enum_Ref_Par)
+/*********************************/
+ /* executed once */
+ /* Enum_Val_Par == Ident_3, Enum_Ref_Par becomes Ident_2 */
+
+Enumeration Enum_Val_Par;
+Enumeration *Enum_Ref_Par;
+{
+ *Enum_Ref_Par = Enum_Val_Par;
+ if (! Func_3 (Enum_Val_Par))
+ /* then, not executed */
+ *Enum_Ref_Par = Ident_4;
+ switch (Enum_Val_Par)
+ {
+ case Ident_1:
+ *Enum_Ref_Par = Ident_1;
+ break;
+ case Ident_2:
+ if (Int_Glob > 100)
+ /* then */
+ *Enum_Ref_Par = Ident_1;
+ else *Enum_Ref_Par = Ident_4;
+ break;
+ case Ident_3: /* executed */
+ *Enum_Ref_Par = Ident_2;
+ break;
+ case Ident_4: break;
+ case Ident_5:
+ *Enum_Ref_Par = Ident_3;
+ break;
+ } /* switch */
+} /* Proc_6 */
+
+
+Proc_7 (Int_1_Par_Val, Int_2_Par_Val, Int_Par_Ref)
+/**********************************************/
+ /* executed three times */
+ /* first call: Int_1_Par_Val == 2, Int_2_Par_Val == 3, */
+ /* Int_Par_Ref becomes 7 */
+ /* second call: Int_1_Par_Val == 10, Int_2_Par_Val == 5, */
+ /* Int_Par_Ref becomes 17 */
+ /* third call: Int_1_Par_Val == 6, Int_2_Par_Val == 10, */
+ /* Int_Par_Ref becomes 18 */
+One_Fifty Int_1_Par_Val;
+One_Fifty Int_2_Par_Val;
+One_Fifty *Int_Par_Ref;
+{
+ One_Fifty Int_Loc;
+
+ Int_Loc = Int_1_Par_Val + 2;
+ *Int_Par_Ref = Int_2_Par_Val + Int_Loc;
+} /* Proc_7 */
+
+
+Proc_8 (Arr_1_Par_Ref, Arr_2_Par_Ref, Int_1_Par_Val, Int_2_Par_Val)
+/*********************************************************************/
+ /* executed once */
+ /* Int_Par_Val_1 == 3 */
+ /* Int_Par_Val_2 == 7 */
+Arr_1_Dim Arr_1_Par_Ref;
+Arr_2_Dim Arr_2_Par_Ref;
+int Int_1_Par_Val;
+int Int_2_Par_Val;
+{
+ REG One_Fifty Int_Index;
+ REG One_Fifty Int_Loc;
+
+ Int_Loc = Int_1_Par_Val + 5;
+ Arr_1_Par_Ref [Int_Loc] = Int_2_Par_Val;
+ Arr_1_Par_Ref [Int_Loc+1] = Arr_1_Par_Ref [Int_Loc];
+ Arr_1_Par_Ref [Int_Loc+30] = Int_Loc;
+ for (Int_Index = Int_Loc; Int_Index <= Int_Loc+1; ++Int_Index)
+ Arr_2_Par_Ref [Int_Loc] [Int_Index] = Int_Loc;
+ Arr_2_Par_Ref [Int_Loc] [Int_Loc-1] += 1;
+ Arr_2_Par_Ref [Int_Loc+20] [Int_Loc] = Arr_1_Par_Ref [Int_Loc];
+ Int_Glob = 5;
+} /* Proc_8 */
+
+
+Enumeration Func_1 (Ch_1_Par_Val, Ch_2_Par_Val)
+/*************************************************/
+ /* executed three times */
+ /* first call: Ch_1_Par_Val == 'H', Ch_2_Par_Val == 'R' */
+ /* second call: Ch_1_Par_Val == 'A', Ch_2_Par_Val == 'C' */
+ /* third call: Ch_1_Par_Val == 'B', Ch_2_Par_Val == 'C' */
+
+Capital_Letter Ch_1_Par_Val;
+Capital_Letter Ch_2_Par_Val;
+{
+ Capital_Letter Ch_1_Loc;
+ Capital_Letter Ch_2_Loc;
+
+ Ch_1_Loc = Ch_1_Par_Val;
+ Ch_2_Loc = Ch_1_Loc;
+ if (Ch_2_Loc != Ch_2_Par_Val)
+ /* then, executed */
+ return (Ident_1);
+ else /* not executed */
+ {
+ Ch_1_Glob = Ch_1_Loc;
+ return (Ident_2);
+ }
+} /* Func_1 */
+
+
+Boolean Func_2 (Str_1_Par_Ref, Str_2_Par_Ref)
+/*************************************************/
+ /* executed once */
+ /* Str_1_Par_Ref == "DHRYSTONE PROGRAM, 1'ST STRING" */
+ /* Str_2_Par_Ref == "DHRYSTONE PROGRAM, 2'ND STRING" */
+
+Str_30 Str_1_Par_Ref;
+Str_30 Str_2_Par_Ref;
+{
+ REG One_Thirty Int_Loc;
+ Capital_Letter Ch_Loc;
+
+ Int_Loc = 2;
+ while (Int_Loc <= 2) /* loop body executed once */
+ if (Func_1 (Str_1_Par_Ref[Int_Loc],
+ Str_2_Par_Ref[Int_Loc+1]) == Ident_1)
+ /* then, executed */
+ {
+ Ch_Loc = 'A';
+ Int_Loc += 1;
+ } /* if, while */
+ if (Ch_Loc >= 'W' && Ch_Loc < 'Z')
+ /* then, not executed */
+ Int_Loc = 7;
+ if (Ch_Loc == 'R')
+ /* then, not executed */
+ return (true);
+ else /* executed */
+ {
+ if (strcmp (Str_1_Par_Ref, Str_2_Par_Ref) > 0)
+ /* then, not executed */
+ {
+ Int_Loc += 7;
+ Int_Glob = Int_Loc;
+ return (true);
+ }
+ else /* executed */
+ return (false);
+ } /* if Ch_Loc */
+} /* Func_2 */
+
+
+Boolean Func_3 (Enum_Par_Val)
+/***************************/
+ /* executed once */
+ /* Enum_Par_Val == Ident_3 */
+Enumeration Enum_Par_Val;
+{
+ Enumeration Enum_Loc;
+
+ Enum_Loc = Enum_Par_Val;
+ if (Enum_Loc == Ident_3)
+ /* then, executed */
+ return (true);
+ else /* not executed */
+ return (false);
+} /* Func_3 */
+
diff --git a/zpu/roadshow/roadshow/dhrystone/dhry_c.dif b/zpu/roadshow/roadshow/dhrystone/dhry_c.dif
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..8bcaaea
--- /dev/null
+++ b/zpu/roadshow/roadshow/dhrystone/dhry_c.dif
@@ -0,0 +1,141 @@
+7c7
+< * Version: C, Version 2.1
+---
+> * Version: C, Version 2.0
+9c9
+< * File: dhry.h (part 1 of 3)
+---
+> * File: dhry_global.h (part 1 of 3)
+11c11
+< * Date: May 25, 1988
+---
+> * Date: March 3, 1988
+30c30
+< * In addition, Berkeley UNIX system calls "times ()" or "time ()"
+---
+> * In addition, UNIX system calls "times ()" or "time ()"
+44c44
+< * Please send results to Rick Richardson and/or Reinhold Weicker.
+---
+> * Please send results to Reinhold Weicker and/or Rick Richardson.
+59c59
+< * History: This version C/2.1 has been made for two reasons:
+---
+> * History: This version C/2.0 has been made for two reasons:
+123,129d122
+< * Version 2.1 is identical to version 2.0 distributed via
+< * the UNIX network Usenet in March 1988 except that it corrects
+< * some minor deficiencies that were found by users of version 2.0.
+< * The only change within the measurement loop is that a
+< * non-executed "else" part was added to the "if" statement in
+< * Func_3, and a non-executed "else" part removed from Proc_3.
+< *
+165,167c158,160
+< * -DHZ=nnn
+< * In Berkeley UNIX, the function "times" returns process
+< * time in 1/HZ seconds, with HZ = 60 for most systems.
+---
+> * -DHZ=nnn (default: 60)
+> * The function "times" returns process times in
+> * 1/HZ seconds, with HZ = 60 for most systems.
+169c162
+< * A VALUE.
+---
+> * THE DEFAULT VALUE.
+176,178c169,171
+< * - dhry.h (this file, containing global definitions and comments)
+< * - dhry_1.c (containing the code corresponding to Ada package Pack_1)
+< * - dhry_2.c (containing the code corresponding to Ada package Pack_2)
+---
+> * - dhry_global.h (this file, containing global definitions and comments)
+> * - dhry_pack_1.c (containing the code corresponding to Ada package Pack_1)
+> * - dhry_pack_2.c (containing the code corresponding to Ada package Pack_2)
+350a344
+> #ifndef TIMES
+353,354c347,354
+< /* Use times(2) time function unless */
+< /* explicitly defined otherwise */
+---
+> #endif
+> /* Use "times" function for measurement */
+> /* unless explicitly defined otherwise */
+> #ifndef HZ
+> #define HZ 60
+> #endif
+> /* Use HZ = 60 for "times" function */
+> /* unless explicitly defined otherwise */
+363c363
+< /* Berkeley UNIX C returns process times in seconds/HZ */
+---
+> /* UNIX C returns process times in seconds/HZ */
+7c7
+< * Version: C, Version 2.1
+---
+> * Version: C, Version 2.0
+9c9
+< * File: dhry_1.c (part 2 of 3)
+---
+> * File: dhry_pack_1.c (part 2 of 3)
+11c11
+< * Date: May 25, 1988
+---
+> * Date: March 3, 1988
+18c18
+< #include "dhry.h"
+---
+> #include "dhry_global.h"
+50,51d49
+< #define Too_Small_Time 120
+< /* Measurements should last at least about 2 seconds */
+55a54,55
+> #endif
+>
+58d57
+< #endif
+73a73
+>
+84a85
+>
+99,100c100,102
+< /* Was missing in published program. Without this statement, */
+< /* Arr_2_Glob [8][7] would have an undefined value. */
+---
+> /* Was missing in published program. Without this */
+> /* initialization, Arr_2_Glob [8][7] would have an */
+> /* undefined value. */
+105c107
+< printf ("Dhrystone Benchmark, Version 2.1 (Language: C)\n");
+---
+> printf ("Dhrystone Benchmark, Version 2.0 (Language: C)\n");
+281c283
+< /******************/
+---
+> /**********************/
+338c340
+< /******************/
+---
+> /**********************/
+347a350,351
+> else /* not executed */
+> Int_Glob = 100;
+349a354
+>
+7c7
+< * Version: C, Version 2.1
+---
+> * Version: C, Version 2.0
+9c9
+< * File: dhry_2.c (part 3 of 3)
+---
+> * File: dhry_pack_2.c (part 3 of 3)
+11c11
+< * Date: May 25, 1988
+---
+> * Date: March 3, 1988
+18c18
+< #include "dhry.h"
+---
+> #include "dhry_global.h"
+189,190d188
+< else /* not executed */
+< return (false);
diff --git a/zpu/roadshow/roadshow/dhrystone/dhrystone.bin b/zpu/roadshow/roadshow/dhrystone/dhrystone.bin
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..ee1a6fe
--- /dev/null
+++ b/zpu/roadshow/roadshow/dhrystone/dhrystone.bin
Binary files differ
diff --git a/zpu/roadshow/roadshow/dhrystone/dhrystone.zpu b/zpu/roadshow/roadshow/dhrystone/dhrystone.zpu
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..e37e59f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/zpu/roadshow/roadshow/dhrystone/dhrystone.zpu
Binary files differ
diff --git a/zpu/roadshow/roadshow/dhrystone/submit.frm b/zpu/roadshow/roadshow/dhrystone/submit.frm
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..a75a689
--- /dev/null
+++ b/zpu/roadshow/roadshow/dhrystone/submit.frm
@@ -0,0 +1,17 @@
+DHRYSTONE 2.1 BENCHMARK REPORTING FORM
+MANUF:
+MODEL:
+PROC:
+CLOCK:
+OS:
+OVERSION:
+COMPILER:
+CVERSION:
+OPTIONS:
+NOREG:
+REG:
+NOTES:
+DATE:
+SUBMITTER:
+CODESIZE:
+MAILTO: uunet!pcrat!dry2
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